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Whatever your critical welding requirement, Select-Arc has the right low alloy, flux cored electrode for the job. That is because Select-Arc offers a complete line of electrodes specially formulated for welding low alloy and high strength steels. With your choice of slag systems (T-5, T-1 and all position T-l) and available in strength


levels from 80-120 Ksi, Select-Arc can provide the low alloy electrode that is ideally suited to handle your individual application.

Select-Arc low alloy, flux cored electrode grades include:

• Molybdenum • Nickel • Chromium - Molybdenum • Nickel - Chromium - Molybdenum • Manganese - Molybdenum • Weathering

These exceptional tubular welding electrodes are manufactured

under Select-Arc's quality O system, which is approved to

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Circle No. 26 on Reader Info-Card

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First with a money- saving solution to thin-plate welding.

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Bohler Stainless Steel Flux-Cored W i r e s Save You Money. . .

. . . i n t h e c o s t o f

shielding gas.

Excellent arc characteris- tics with 100% CO 2, or 75% Ar + 25% CO 2

. . . i n t h e cost o f fabr ica t ion .

The self peeling slag and smooth weld finish mini- mize time of post weld clean-up.

. . . i n t h e cost o f r e w o r k .

The wide arc provides uniform, deep penetra- tion with good side wall fusion and a smooth weld profile.

To ensure weld metal chemistry, all wires are made utilizing austenitic stainless steel sheaths and agglomerated flux infills. The wire reels are vacuum shrink-packed to preserve product freshness during shipping and storage.

Save T i m e and M o n e y Wi th B O H L E R F l u x - C o r e d Wires

For Stainless Steel B O H L E R f l u x - c o r e d w i r e s a r e p r o v e n f o r p r o d u c t i o n w e l d i n g w o r l d w i d e .

Bohler stainless steel flux-cored wires are ideal for both heavy wall components and thin sheet metal fabrication applications. They produce excellent results with either 100% CO 2 or mixed shielding gas. And, for positional welding ourT1 wires provide excellent operating characteristics as well as help reduce operator fatigue.

Our flux-cored wires provide a powerful, penetrating arc that deposits a smooth spatter free weld that is cost effective, with excellent overall wire performance, reliably and consistently.

Little post weld cleaning is required and temper coloration is minimized. There are also fewer defects caused by porosity, slag inclusions or lack of fusion.

7 Reasons To Specify Bohler

FCAW Stainless Wire

Reliable and Consistent Weld Quality

Smooth Welding Characteristics

Minimum Post Weld Clean Up

Excellent Operator Appeal

Significantly Reduced Welding Costs

Bohler Welding Manufactures to ISO 9001 Quality Standards

World Wide Leader in Welding Technology for Over 75 Years

Circle No. 11 on Reader Info-Card

Bohler Thyssen Welding USA. Inc. Bohler Thyssen Welding Canada, Ltd. P.O. Box 721678 22 LePage Court Houston.Texas 77272-, 678 Downsview. ON M3J ,Z9 B C D H L E R Phone: (281) 499-1212 Phone: (416) 638-3253 Fax: (281) 499-4347 Fax: (416) 638-4632 www.btwusa.com • [emailprotected] www.btwcan.com • [emailprotected]

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CON Features 3 0 Pipe A l ign ing and Re fo rm ing C l a m p s Exp la ined

Modern pipe aligning and clamping equipment handles multiple applications

32 T r a c k l e s s W e l d i n g o f L a r g e S tee l S t r u c t u r e s A method is proposed for trackless, one-sided welding of heavy plate without beveling S. B. Zhang et al.

3 7 F u n d a m e n t a l s f o r C h o o s i n g a P o s i t i o n e r Selecting the right positioner for the job is a matter of knowing the fundamentals D. R. Burgar t

4 0 D e s i g n i n g P o s i t i o n e r s f o r R o b o t i c s Robots and positioners are meant to operate as a synchronized whole Z. M ichae l et el.

4 4 S p e c i a l Repor t : T h e 2003 AWS W e l d i n g S h o w Highlights of the AWS Welding Show and Annual Meeting are featured A. Cul l ison at el.

Welding Research Supplement 1 6 1 - S A P r o p o s e d S-N Curve fo r W e l d e d Sh ip S t ruc tu res

Finite element analysis is used to predict stress hot spots, using stress associated with static loads S. W. Kang ot al.

1 7 0 - S A P r o b a b i l i s t i c D i f f u s i o n W e l d M o d e l i n g F r a m e w o r k A review of problems associated with methods of modeling diffusion welds leads to an analysis of the relationship between joint porosity and impact strength V. R. Dav6 et el.

1 7 9 - S Se lec t ion o f S c h e d u l e s Based on Hea t B a l a n c e in Res is tance S p o t We ld ing A new theory for selecting weld schedules for spot welding is based on using a "characteristic" sheet thickness S. Agashe et el.

1 8 4 - S L iqua t i on Crack ing in Par t i a l -Pene t ra t i on A l u m i n u m Welds: Ef fect o f Pene t ra t i on Osc i l l a t ion and Back f i l l i ng Liquation cracking near the weld root was studied, focusing on penetration oscillation and backfilling C. Huang at el.

AWS Web site http:l lwww.aws.org

Departments Press-Time News ................ 4

Editorial ............................ 6

News of the Industry .............. 8

CyberNotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Letters to the Editor ............ 20

Stainless Q&A .................... 22

New Products .................... 24

Navy Joining Center ............ 54

Coming Events .................. 56

Society News .................... 59

Tech Topics ...................... 60 Code errata

Guide to AWS Services ........ 76

New Literature .................. 78

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Classifieds ...................... 86

Advertiser Index ................ 88

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published monthly by the American Welding Society for $90.00 per year in the United States and posses- sions, $130 per year in foreign countries: $6.00 per single issue for AWS members and $8.00 per sin- gle issue for nonmembers. American Welding So- ciety is located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodi- cals postage paid in Miami, Re., and additional mail- ing offices. 1~8IM.II$I1EII: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671.

Readers of WeldingJournalmay make copies of ar- ticles for personal, archival, educational or research purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Per- mission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.


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Northrop Grumman Fiber Amplifier Achieves Record Laser Light Output Levels

Northrop Grumman Space Technology has developed a fiber amplifier that recently has produced an unprecedented output of 155 W from a slender optical glass thread. The energy emerges as infrared light with a single polarization. The fiber amplifier was developed under a contract with the Department of Defense's Joint Technology Office. Interest in fiber amplifiers is strong because of their high efficiency, which exceeds that of slab lasers. The optical efficiency reduces the amount of waste heat that has to be re- jected in addition to providing power and weight savings.

"This demonstration is a big step forward in the scaling of fiber lasers to high power," said Jackie Gish, technology product area manager for Northrop Grumman Space Tech- nology. "Our approach is scalable, and if you were to coherently combine a number of such fibers, as we're starting to do, you begin to reach significant laser power levels."

The company's fiber amplifier possesses two key technical properties. Its single- spatial-mode fiber ensures minimum diffraction of the light beam, delivering maximum power on target. In addition, the amplifier maintains a single polarization, which en- ables coherent combination of output from multiple fiber amplifiers, to deliver the high- est energy on target.

"Our measured results are substantially higher than any previously reported power levels for single-mode, polarization-maintaining fiber amplifiers," Gish said.

Study Forecasts Improved Outlook for Construction Worldwide

A positive long-term picture is forecast for the global construction industry, accord- ing to a recently released study from Global Insight, Inc., Waltham, Mass. "Global Con- struction Study 2003" measures and forecasts out to 2025 construction industry spend- ing in 55 of the world's largest construction markets. The study's three objectives were to size the market, forecast market growth, and determine construction-specific risk.

The study forecasts moderate global growth at 5% in construction investment through 2012, with India and China growing at considerably higher rates of 9.2% and 7.9%, re- spectively. Long-term, the United States is expected to grow to the global average of 4.8%; Western Europe will be slightly behind at 3.9%. In 2003, global construction ac- tivity is expected to expand by 2.8%, with growth accelerating into 2004.

"The exciting news we found in doing this study is the tremendous growth opportu- nity in Asia today, which we expect to continue over the next decade. India and China, in particular, offer major business opportunities and an increase in revenue growth for construction companies," said Chris Holling, director of Global Insight's Business Eco- nomics and Custom Solutions Group. "By 2005, the United States and Western Europe will also be on the upswing, so the long-term forecast looks encouraging for the industry as a whole."

Inexpensive labor and manufacturing costs, coupled with plentiful land for building factories, plants, and the supporting infrastructure, are the drivers for China's current construction boom. In India, government infrastructure initiatives for building roads, railroads, bridges, and power lines are helping to create an expected growth rate of 10.6% over the next five years.

More information on the study is available on the company's Web site at www. globalinsight, com/construction2003.

Kinder Morgan Energy Partners and Praxair Enter into Long-Term Natural Gas Supply Agreement

Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, L.P., Houston, Tex., recently entered into a 15-year agreement to supply Praxair, Inc., with up to 90,000 MMBtu of natural gas per day through its intrastate pipeline system.

Under the agreement, Kinder Morgan will supply natural gas to Praxair's new hydro- gen facilities in Texas City and Port Arthur, Tex. The new hydrogen facilities are sched- uled to be in production in 2004.

l ~ l JULY 2003 I

WELJ I I.Q Publisher Jeff Weber

Editorial Editor/Editorial Director Andrew Cullison

Senior Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen Associate Editor Susan Campbell Associate Editor Ross Hanco*ck

Peer Review Coordinator Doreen Kubish

Graphics end Production Creative Director Jose Lopez

Production Editor Zaida Chavez

Advertising National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein

National Sales Representative Sheila Tait Advertising Sales Promotion Coordinator Lea Garrigan

Advertising Production Frank Wilson

Subscriptions Orlando Collado

American Welding Society 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126

(800) 443-9353, ext. 290 [emailprotected]

Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee G. O. Wilcox, Committee Chairman

Thermadyne Industries J. D. Weber, Secretary

American Welding Society P. Albert, KrautkramerBranson

T. A. Barry, Miller Electric Mfg. Co. T. C. Conard, ABICOR Binzel

B. Damkroger, Sandia National Laboratories D. L. Doench, Hobart Brothers Co. J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co. N. R. Helton, Pandjiris, Inc.

V. Y. Matthews, The Lincoln Electric Co. G. M. NalIy, Consultant R. G. Pali, Z P. Nissen Co.

J. E Saenger, Jr., Edison Weldinglnstitute R. D. Smith, The Lincoln Electric Co.

D. Trees, John Deere & Co. D. C. Klingman, Ex Off., The Lincoln Electric Co. L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrop Gmmman Corp.

D. J. Landon, Ex Off, Vermeer Mfg. Co. E. D. Levert, Ex Off., Lockheed Martin Missiles and F~ Control

E. C. Lipphardt, Ex Off., Consultant T. M. Mustaleski, Ex Off., BWXT-YI2LLC

J. G. Postle, Ex Off., Postle Industries R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society

Copyright © 2003 by American Welding Seciety in both printed and dec. tranic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in- tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.



-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (7)

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I Controls protected I inside the helmet

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unit to detect welds less than 5 amps

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The Jackson NexGen T M EQC ®. Truly the next generation of auto-darkening for the welding specialist. The NexGen offers the flexibility of digital technology with the stability of analog to make the smartest auto-darkening filter on the market!

J l Replaceable I lithium batteries

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Circle No. 21 on Reader Info-Card

Jackson Products-The Only Auto Darkening Filters Made in the USA

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.mromat l ~ - ,-, ~ I

What Does It Mean to You? Do you belong to AWS for career enhancement , for discounts on technical

standards and other publications, for the subscription to the Welding Journal, or, perhaps, for the opportuni ty to network with your peers at Section meetings? What does membership in the American Welding Society mean to you?

As with most organizations, AWS member benefits can be collected into two categories. The first are the passive member benefits. Things like receiving the Welding Journal or getting a discount on a book are easily accomplished with little personal involvement. The other category requires active involvement in the or- ganization. These benefits include meeting peers at AWS events, exchanging in- formation at technical committee meetings, or working toward attaining one of the AWS certifications.

While I have enjoyed and gotten value from many of the long list of AWS ben- efits, I have determined the absolutely most beneficial category for me is active participation. Active participation returns value manyfold over the time and en- ergy invested.

During my 30 plus years of membership, the most valuable benefit I have re- ceived is the enduring friendships I 've made through my part ic ipat ion in AWS events. I could not have met the many men and women who comprise the back- bone of not only AWS but also the welding industry without my active participa- tion in the organization.

I have been fortunate to have been able to par t ic ipate in my local Sections, various volunteer committees, and several District and National positions during my career. The one constant at all of those levels, the at tr ibute I have appreci- ated most, is the quality and dedication of the people I have met.

Through my active part icipation, I have gained many friends (a word with a strong connotation to me) from the AWS volunteer and staff communities. Only by my participating has this been possible.

As a personal example of this membership benefit, I would like to share with you my activities of last weekend. Many years ago, 1985 to be exact, my wife Leslie and I met this wild and crazy guy living on a sailboat in San Francisco Bay. Little did we know, by our at tending a social event at the AWS Show, we would meet and develop a long-term friendship with future AWS President John Bartley and his wife, Patty. Now retired and living in Texas, they dropped by our home on the way to a three-week camping trip. After catching up on recent events, more fam- ily than business or even AWS, and devouring fresh strawberries, boiled shrimp, and a few bottles of sparkling wine, we saw them off on their long journey. Long- term friendships come from active AWS participation.

I could continue with a list of people encountered and now considered friends, but with the limited editorial space, let me just encourage you to become a very active member. Our Society needs volunteers in many areas, and I am sure each of you can find your niche in the organization simply by offering your time and skills.

So, please, reap the full rewards of membership. Get active and collect the benefits. I did.

Lee G. Kvidahl A WS Past President (1993-1994) and Chair,, Membership Committee

l l . l B JULY 2003 I

Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science, Technology and Application of Welding

Officers President T. M. Mustaleski


Vice President James E. Greer

Moraine Valley Community College

Vice President Damian J. Kotecki The Lincoln Electric Co.

Vice President Gerald D. Uttrachi WA Technology, LLC

Treasurer Earl C. Lipphardt Consultant

Executive Director Ray W. Shook American Welding Society

Directors T R. Atberts (Dist. 4), New River Community College

R. L Arn (Past President), WELDtech InternationaL

A. J. Badeaux, Sr. (Dist. 3), Charles Oy. Career & Tech. Center

K. S. Baucher (Dist. 22), Technicon Engineering Sovic~ Inc.

M. D. Bell (At Large), MACTEC, Inc.

L. J. Bennett (Dist. 21),A//an Hanco*ck College

J. C. Bruskotter (Dist. 9), Production Management lnd~tries

C. E Burg (Dist. 16), Ames Laboratory IPRT

H. R. Castner (At Large), Ed/son ~/d/ng Institute

N. A. Chapman (Dist. 6), Ente~ Nuclear Northeast

S. C. Chapple (At Large), Consultant

N. C. Cole (At Latge),NCC Engineering

W. J. Engeron (Dist. 5), En'gmeeredAlloy/Systems & Supply

A. E Fleuty (Dist. 2),A. E Fleuty&Associates

J. R. Franklin (At Large), Sellstrom Mfg. Co.

J. A. Grantham (Dist. 20), WJMG West

J. D. Heikldnen (Dist. 15), Spartan Sauna Heaters, Inc.

W. E. Honey (Dist. 8),Anchor Research Corp.

J. L Hunter (Dist. 13), Mitsubishi gotor Mfg. of A m e ~ Inc.

R. D. Kellum (At Large), Wdlamette Welding Supply

M. D. Kersey (Dist. 12), The Lincoln Electric Co.

E. D. Levert (Past President), ~ g a r ~ Mt~iles& Free Ctma~

V. Y. Matthews (Dist. 10), The Lincoln Electric Co.

J. L Mendoza (Dist. 18), C~ Public Service

R. L. Norris (Dist. 1), Merriam Graves Corp.

T C. Parker (Dist. 14),MillerElectricMfg. Co.

O. E Reich (Dist. 17), Texas State Technical College at Waco

E. Siradakls (Dist. 11),Abgas Great Lakes

R. J. Tabernik (Dist. 7), The Lincoln Electric Co.

P. E Zammit (Dist. 19), Brooklyn Iron Wott¢, Inc.

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EWI to Lead Development of Internal Pipeline Repair Technology

The Edison Welding Institute (EWI) is leading a program to evaluate, develop, and validate internal repair methods for natu- ral gas pipelines in order to permit the repair and continued op- eration of pipelines that otherwise might have to be retired from service. The program is through the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory.

Standard methods call for excavation of the damaged area to permit access to the pipeline. Repairs are made by either cutting out the damaged section and adding a replacement, adding a full encirclement sleeve or clock spring, or welding directly onto the pipeline. These methods work well in situations where the pipe can be readily excavated, but are not applicable in situations such as river or estuary crossings, where pipelines run through swamp- land or similar terrain, subsea pipelines, or environmentally sen- sitive and heavily populated urban areas. In those cases, an al- ternative is to repair the pipeline from the inside.

A single "cut out and replace" pipeline repair can cost as much as $1 million depending on environmental and operating condi- tions, but new internal repair technology could reduce repair costs by as much as 50%.

EWI will perform a laboratory demonstration of internal pipeline repair and develop a functional specification for acom-

bined prototype system to perform internal inspection and re- pair. The demonstration is expected to take place fall 2004.

The other members of the team are Pacific Gas & Electric Co., which will assist with technical work, and Pipeline Research Council International, Inc., which will cofund the project and provide additional industrial oversight.

Labor Department Awards Grant for Metalworking Apprenticeship Programs

The U.S. Department of Labor recently awarded a $1.9 mil- lion grant to the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS) to update existing metalworking apprenticeship pro- grams. The new model will use industry proficiency standards NIMS has established to provide a consistent credentialing sys- tem for metalworking companies.

"This administration wants to help young people starting out, as well as displaced workers looking for new opportunities to get into good jobs with promising futures," said Secretary of Labor Elaine L. Chao. "Today's grant will help targeted workers to quickly develop the needed skills and competencies to move up the career ladder of their choice."

With the grant monies, NIMS will develop curriculum guides for four metalworking occupational areas: metal forming, ma- chining, tool and die making, and machine building. Students en- rolled in the program will receive national credentials that a r e

Attention: All Active Certified Welding Inspectors and Senior Certified Welding Inspectors

Announcing a Great Opportunity!! Between now and September 30, 2003, AWS has entered into an Agreement between American Society for Non-Destructive Testing (ASNT) and the American Welding Society (AWS) to provide ACCP VT Certification for hWS CWIs and SCWIs.

The scope of the Agreement is to provide access for AWS Certified Welding Inspectors (CWIs) and Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWIs) to Visual Testing certification under the transition provisions of the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP). CWIs and SCWIs gaining certification under the provision will hold such ACCP VT certification conditional upon the maintenance of their CWI or SCWI certification.

Current CWIs and SCWIs who would be applicants under this Agreement will be eligible to transition into the General Industry (GI) Sector and Direct Visual technique. Applicants wishing to enter the Pressure Equipment (PE) Sector must document three (3) years experience in that sector. Applicants seeking Remote VT certification for either GI or PE Sectors must document three (3) years experience in that sector. Applicants seeking Remote VT certification for either GI or PE Sectors must document experience in remote viewing techniques.

The ACCP VT certification granted to the AWS CWIs and SCWIs will be expressed as an endorsem*nt to the CWI certification and will be noted on the CWI or SCWI wallet card.

Circle No. 4 on Reader Info-Card

For additional information, visit the ASNT website at www.asnt.org/latestnews/aws.htm and for an application, visit ASNT's website at www.asnt.org/certification/accp/LII-CWI.pdf. The application fee is U.S. $150 payable to ASNT. Hurry and get your completed application in the mail today! You only have until September 30, 2003, to take advantage of this valuable program and make your CWI or SCWI certification an even more respected professional credential.

AWS Certification Staff

American Welding Society Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science, Teclluology and Application of Welding

-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (11)

consistent across the industry and can be used by metalworking companies in making recruitment, hiring, training, and promo- tional decisions• Under these competency-based programs, mo- tivated workers will be able to move at a quicker pace.

The Precision Metalforming Association is a founding part- ner of NIMS. Other industry partners include the Association for Manufacturing Technology, the National Tooling and Ma- chining Association, the American Machine Tool Distributors Association, the Tooling and Manufacturing Association, and the Precision Machine Products Association.

Northrop Grumman Receives Two Environmental Awards

Northrop Grumman Corp.'s Newport News sector recently received a Platinum and a Gold Pretreatment Excellence Award from the Hampton Roads (Va.) Sanitation District.

The Platinum Award signifies five consecutive years (1998-2002) of perfect compliance, and the Gold Award signi- fies a perfect compliance record for the year 2002. The company achieved perfect compliance by sampling and analyzing all in- dustrial wastewater at the facility and meeting the discharge lim- its mandated by the sanitation district. It also met all the district's technical and administration requirements.

Industrial Gases Market to Reach $52 Billion by 2008

The current global market for industrial gases is estimated at

$36 billion. According to RC-237 World Industrial Gas Business, a report from Business Communications Co., Inc., the market is expected to reach nearly $52 billion by 2008, climbing at an aver- age annual growth rate of 7.5% through the forecast period.

The growth will be the result of the worldwide manufacturing sector using huge quantities of industrial gases for the produc- tion of environmentally cleaner products such as food and fuels and to upgrade increasing supplies of heavy crude oil. Applica- tions for glass production, steel, and nonferrous and new materi- als processing also will help drive demand.

Metal manufacturing and fabrication will remain the largest volume market for industrial gases. Increasing gas demand in this market are expectations of favorable forecasts for crude and stainless steel. Gas demand will also expand as steel producers in developing countries strive to upgrade production technolo- gies and improve efficiencies. By 2008, that market will reach $7.2 billion, growing an average 5.1% annually through the fore- cast period, according to the report.

The cost of the report is $3950. For additional information, contact Business Communications Co., Inc., 25 Van Zant St., Norwalk, CT 06855; telephone (203) 853-4266, ext. 309; e-mail [emailprotected].

Lincoln Electric Unit to Supply Welding System for Russian Pipe Mill

Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., was recently awarded a $6 million contract to supply advanced automated welding equip- ment to the Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant in Chelyabinsk, Rus- sia. The company is one of Russia's largest pipe manufacturers.

Lincoln's wholly owned German subsidiary, Uhrhan & Schwill,

/ /

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Circle No. 28 on Reader Info-Card


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will provide overall project management. The system's compo- nents will be manufactured both in Europe and at the company's Cleveland, Ohio, operations.

Vessel Head Repairs Scheduled for Cook Unit 2 Refueling Outage

American Electric Power, Bridgman, Mich., recently repaired several minor defects on the Cook Nuclear Plant Unit 2 reactor vessel head. Repair of the five small, shallow indications did not affect the refueling outage duration.

The indications, originally identif ied during inspections in 2002, showed no signs of increasing; however, new industry rules dictate they be repaired before the unit was returned to service.

A full visual inspection is planned for the Unit 1 reactor head during a refueling outage in the fall. The company continues to evaluate reactor vessel head replacement for both units but has not reached a final decision.

Both Cook units were taken off-line on April 24 when a mas- sive intrusion of fish temporari ly disrupted cooling water flow to the plant. A fish de ter rent system was installed in the Lake Michigan water intake system and Unit 1 returned to service at the end of May.

Two Iron- and Steel-Related Organizations Plan to Consolidate

The Iron & Steel Society (ISS) and the Association of Iron & Steel Engineers (AISE), both based in Pittsburgh, Pa., recently

announced their intention to consolidate into a single, as-yet- unnamed entity. The two organizations plan to merge as of Jan- uary 1, 2004. Both boards of directors have approved the consol- idations; the matter goes out for a ballot to members of both or- ganizations for final approval.

"This consolidation presents a great opportunity to add sig- nificant value for our members ," said Ian Sadler, pres ident of ISS. "With one combined organizat ion focused on member needs, we will be able to meet those needs in a more compre- hensive and cost-effective manner. The added value comes in taking the best from both organizations to deliver a more pow- erful set of services to a wider membership base. We have a very clear mandate from the members of both organizations. They want this to happen."

ISS dates back to 1871 and AISE to 1907. After the merger, the new entity will have more than 12,000 members and 45 tech- nical committees.

Greer Steel Invests $2.5 Million in Michigan Facility

Greer Steel, a producer of cold-rolled strip steel, recently in- vested more than $2.5 million in new equipment for its Ferndale, Mich., service center.

Robert Ulbrich, the facility's general manager, outl ined the improvements: "Our dual header slitter has been upgraded to include new payoff and takeup reels. We have also added a ten- sion stand, a four-arm input stager, unloading turnstile, and com- pleted the construction of a 35-ft looping pit. Our Bliss 2, high- temper mill is being upgraded to include a new sealed bearing pack, Vollmer gauger and printer, new payoff infeed, and drive

ml01B JULY 2003 I

Circle No. 24 on Reader Info-Card

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motor. We have also added a new ten-ton-capacity, high-speed overhead crane, new coil upenders, and 6000 sq ft of new space to our facility."

The company's products include low-carbon strip, annealed spring steel, high-strength low-alloy strip, and oscillate-wound flat wire.

Design Award 2002. Founded in 1950, the GOOD DESIGN Awards recognize designers and manufacturers for advancing new and innovative product concepts and originality and for stretching the envelope beyond what is considered standard design. The iF award is an international design competition that recognizes products with exemplary design quality.

Design Consortium Presents Award to Lincoln Electric

Design Consortium recently recognized The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio, for its advanced applications of the PVM TM

process. The Product Value MatrixSM is a proprietary process for un-

derstanding the value of products, services, and markets. Lin- coln Electric adopted the process in 1997 and has used it to help define and specify products, services, and new business oppor- tunities.

Industry Notes

• GOWELD ®, a battery-powered portable arc welding machine that features an onboard computer, recently won two inter- national design awards. Broco, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, Calif., manufactures the machine. GOWELD won in the in- dustrial equipment category of the Chicago Athenaeum: Mu- seum of Architecture and Design's GOOD DESIGN TM Awards for 2002. It also picked up Germany's Industrie Forum (iF)

The Lincoln Electric Co. recently added more than 400 Amer- ican Welding Society (AWS) Certificates of Conformance to its Web site at www.lincolnelectric.com. The Certificates of Conformance provide documentation that Lincoln has con- ducted and passed all the tests required by the applicable AWS Filler Metal Specification. These documents indicate the level of mechanical or chemical properties typical for the product tested, and are typically used for quality assurance reporting, specifying electrodes, and to provide engineering data.

Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., recently received a $481 million supplement to its U.S. Air Force contract to pro- duce F119-PW-100 engines for the F/A-22 Raptor fighter air- craft. The supplement represents the third production con- tract for Fl19 engines and covers 40 engines to be delivered in 2004, along with associated spares and support services to be delivered this year.

The Greenbrier Companies, Lake Oswego, Oreg., recently an- nounced it received orders for 1500 railcars valued at $90 mil- lion during its second quarter ended February 28. The orders push the company's backlog to 5800 railcars valued at $330


We have been told that we are the best-kept secret in the welding industry. In an effort to correct this situation we advise that:

WE MAKE Stainless Cast Iron Cobalt AISI Nickel

410NiMo FC 3 3 % Ni 1 4130 ENiCrFe-2 502 FC 5 5 % Ni 6 4 1 4 0 ENiCrFe-3 505 FC 9 9 % Ni 12 4 3 4 0 EniCrCoMo-1 E2553 FC 21 ERNiCrMo-3 E2209 FC 2101 ERNiCr-3 E630 FC 904L FC


Circle No. 16 on Reader Info-Card


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million, up from 5700 cars valued at $310 million on Novem- ber 30, 2002. The orders included 1300 riserless deck center partition cars, including 600 cars from Canadian Pacific Rail- way and 350 cars from Canadian National Railway.

• ASTM International recently established a new Student Mem- bership category for undergraduate and graduate-level stu- dents. The membership is free of charge to eligible students. Benefits include e-mail delivery of Standardization News, the organization's monthly magazine, and other publications; free admission to ASTM symposia; a reduced fee for the first year of membership after graduation; access to a new student mem- ber Web page; and exclusive eligibility to participate in the ASTM Student Paper Contest. For further information, con- tact Lisa Wellington at [emailprotected].

. • North American manufacturing companies ordered 3500 ro- bots valued at $219.5 million, and another 132 robots valued at $11.4 million were ordered from North American robot sup- pliers by companies located outside North America during the first quarter of this year. This represents first quarter gains of 48% in robot units, the industry's best start since 1999, accord- ing to Robotic Industries Association, the industry's trade group.

• Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo, and Infra, S.A. de C.V., a unit of Mex- ico's Infra Group, are collaborating to expand the marketing of Kobelco products in Central and South America. The Infra

Group is one of Mexico's leading welding equipment manu- facturers. As part of the agreement, Kobelco Welding of Amer- ica, Inc., Kobe's U.S. subsidiary, will provide Infra customers with product support and technical services and Infra will sell Kobe's flux cored welding wire. Kobe will also assist in in- creasing the quality of Infra's solid welding wire.

• The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio, recently signed a partnership agreement with Genesis Systems Group, Daven- port, Iowa, to represent the company's Piatformation brand of products. The Platformation line includes Genesis's array of robotic positioners and platforms. These will be incorpo- rated into arc welding robotic cells to complement Lincoln Electric power sources and FANUC robotic arms.

Do You Have Some News to Tell Us?

If you have a news item that might interest the readers of the Welding Journal, send it to the following address:

Welding Journal Dept. Attn: Mary Ruth Johnsen 550 NW LeJeune Rd. Miami, FL 33126.

Items can also be sent via FAX to (305) 443-7404 or by e-mail to [emailprotected].


| international| \ , r ~ ~

i www.diversacademy.c ~,! , Dnvtns ACAOEm INTEM•BOHAL

l i P i JULY 2003 I

~ ~

Shopsl Shopsl ~j i~ .~ ~jAWS Affiliate Company Members reeelve:

• An AWS Individual Membership ~ i • Group of AWS Pocket Handbooks • 62% discount on shipping ~ And much more... ~ ~,

For more information, please ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ i (8OO) 443-9353, ext. 480, lip

{305) 443-9353, ext. 480. Visit us on-line at www.aws.org Circle No. 6 on Reader Info-Card

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American Welding Society Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science, Technology and Application of Welding

AWS Certification is the welding industry's most respected sign of


Anchorage, AK ................ 9 /7 -12 .............................. 9 /13 /2003

New Orleans, LA .............. 917- t2 .............................. 9 /13 /2003

Minneapolis, MN .............. 9 / 1 4 - t 9 ............................ 9 /20 /2003

San Diego, CA ................ 9 /14-19 ............................ 9 /20 /2003

Dallas, TX ........................ 9 /21-26 ............................ 9 / 27 /2003

Detroit, MI ...................... 9 /21-26 ............................ 9 / 27 /2003

Mi lwaukee, W! ................ 9128-t013 ........................ 101412003


Denver, CO ...................... 10 /5-10 ............................ 10 /11 /2003

Phoenix, AZ .................... 10 /12-17 .......................... 10 /18 /2003

Pi t tsburgh, PA ................ 10 /19-24 .......................... 10 /25 /2003

Tulsa, OK ........................ 10119-24 .......................... 1012512003

Chicago, IL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10/26-31 .......................... 11 /1 /2003

Atlanta, GA ...................... 10/26-31 .......................... 11 /1 /2003


Long Beach, CA .............. 1112-7 .............................. 1118/2003

Beaumont, TX ................ 1112-7 .............................. 1118/2003

Portland, OR .................... 11 /9-14 ............................ 11 /15 /2003

Louisvi l le, KY .................. 1119-14 ............................ 1111512003

Rapid City, SD ................ 11/16-21 .......................... 1112212003

San Juan, PR .................. 11116-21 .......................... 1112212003

Columbus, OH ................ 11117-22 at NBPVl ............ 1112212003

Miami, FL ........................ 11130-12/5 ...................... 121612003

Seminar and Exam Schedule

Course Schedule

Ol.1 Code Clinic ............................................ Sunday; l p.m.- 5 p.m.

Monday; 8 a.m.- Noon

~11104 Code Clinic .................................. Monday; 1 p,m.- 5 p.m.

Welding Inspection Teelmology .................. Tuesday-Thursday; 8 a,m,- 5 p,m,

lrmual hspeetion Workshop ........................ Friday; 8 a.m.- 5 p,m,

Exam .......................................................... Saturday; report for exam at 7:30 a.m.

To register or for more information on an exam prep course, call (800) 443-9353. ext. 229; to request an application for CWI exam qualification, call ext 273.

To find out about AWS Customized In-House Training and Quality Assurance Programs for your company, call AWS, toll-free at 1-800-443-9353, ext. 482, or check the box on the registration form.

Visit our website www.aws.org for additional dates.

AWS reserves the right to cancel or change the published date of an exam preparation seminar listed if an insufficient number of registrations are received. Prices are subject to change without notice.

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Web Site Details Ceramic Component Design

Association of American Ceramic Component Manufacturers (AACCM). The mission of this Westerville, Ohio, based organization is "to expand the mar- ket for manufactured ceramic compo- nents by enhancing the process and prod- uct quality, and by increasing public and industry education and awareness of ceramic applications." To help fulfill that mission, AACCM recently updated its Web site to offer more information regarding material design challenges and solutions for a variety of industries. The site now includes "success stories" from seven of its member companies that address specific design challenges and their solution through the proper choice of ceramic material, component design, and fabrication technique.

The site includes a list of members. Hyperlinks bring visitors who click on a company's name to its Web site; clicking on the e-mail address allows visitors to send the company a message or requests can be sent to all the members by clicking on the "e-mail all members" button at the bottom of the page. The "Member Capabilities" section provides informa- tion in two tables about each AACCM member's manufacturing capabilities, as well as applications and industries served. The "Industry Matrix" shows the indus- tries and applications the companies serve. The "Capabilities Matrix" shows the ceramic materials, forming methods, and machining/finishing services available from each member. The site also includes membership information, a "Why Ceramics" section that addresses some of the properties, benefits, and uses of ceramic materials, and a "Property Comparison" that compares the proper- ties of steel to those of seven different ceramic materials.


A Resource for Saw Blade Users

The M. K. Morse Co. The Canton, Ohio, based company, which is celebrat- ing its fortieth anniversary this year, man- ufactures industrial band saw blades and a wide range of hand and power tool accessories including metal-cutting circu- lar saw blades, hole saws, reciprocating saw blades, jigsaw blades, portable band saw blades, and hacksaw blades. It also produces a line of abrasives and mounted points. The company's Web site offers

detailed information on all of these prod- ucts. Technical information is included for all the product lines. These include explanations of how saw blades work, a blade selection chart, sheet metal gauge thickness and Schedule 40 and 80 pipe wall thickness charts, problem solving information, and troubleshooting info to help you prevent problems.

Plenty of details about the company, including a history of the finn, location of manufacturing plants, and information about product guarantees, are also avail- able. While the site promises a virtual tour of the company's manufacturing plant, that area was still under construc- tion when the Welding Journal visited it.


Site Highlights Remote Visual Inspection Equipment

Everest VIT, Inc. Video borescopes, rigid borescopes, fiberscopes, robotic crawlers, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, light sources, and other remote visual inspection products are featured in the company's Web site. The "Industries" section details how these products are used in the manu- facturing, aviation, power, and natural gas industries, among others, and includes sample application shots from those indus- tries taken with the company's products.

Visitors can also learn the company's

history, find out about career opportuni- ties, obtain answers to frequently asked questions (which pop up in more than one section of the site), look up the com- pany's locations and distributors any- where in the world, and request a product demonstration.


Clamping Products Featured

PHD, Inc. The company, based in Ft. Wayne, Ind., has named its Web site the "Instant Clamp Exper t" ." Clamping solutions for welding environments are among the products featured.

Using the site, visitors can view com- plete clamp animations, working princi- ples, and competitive comparisons; access clamp catalogs; configure accurate part numbers using graphic prompts; request CAD models; obtain pricing; and place orders online. Offerings in the "Free Resources" section include the Designer's Resource ® CD-ROM, a collection of tools to aid engineers and designers in selecting the proper products for their applications; product catalogs; newsletters; product videos; and application examples in Macromedia ® Flash and video.

The "On-Line Tools" and "Downloads" sections offer the company's CAD Configurator software, unit conversion software, online product sizing, and screen savers, among other offerings.


J E l l JULY 2003 I

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American Welding Society ~ " b \ -

--Tech.olog, aBd Applicatio. of Welding i'f ! ~ . . ~ ! ; ,~'~: "! ~

4TH WELD CRACI(I - " - " '


AWS can show you the latest trends in weld cracking prevention, ~!j at this important conference, September 9-10 in New Orleans, La. It is essential to keep current with the technological developments ~: in your industr~ You can do that by attending this informative "~ conference on the causes and cures of weld cracking. The following ~iir~ ~" ' key topics will be discussed:

• Keynote Address - Why Weld Cracldng Is Such an Important issue

• Hytlrogen-AuslMed Cracking In Steel Woidmenta

• Welding AHoy Design for CounteracUng Various Cracking Phenomena

• Tempedmad Repair

• Hydrogen Management in Multi-Puss Welds

• Using Ultrasonics and Other NDE Methods to Detect Cracks in Welds

• Aluminum AHoys

• OmegaPIpe Softwore usd Othor Computer Techniques to Evaluate Weld Cracking

• A New High-Performance Steel for Bddgus

• HOw the Gleeble, Vorestroint and

SigmaUg Tests can Be Used to Prevent Weld CTaclidng

• How to Avoid Cracking in 11tanium

• Tile Eff6Ct of ShOt Peening H Residual

• Component Repairs Using Under Matoidng Weld RHOr Metals to AvoM Cmoidlm P I ~

• Instances Where Proper Heat Treating Makes the Omorence


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American Welding Society

Friends and Colleagues:

The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individ- ual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an indi- vidual's career of outstanding accomplishment.

To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leader- ship in the welding industry by one or more of the following:

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding industry. The individual's organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to training and vocational education in the welding industry. The individual's organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor nomination form in this issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is February 1, 2004. The committee looks forward to receiving these nominations for 2005 consideration.


H. E. Cable Chairman, Counselor Selection Committee

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(please type or print in black ink)
























**MOST IMPORTANT** The Counselor Selection Committee criteria are strongly based on and extracted from the categories identified below. All in-

formation and support material provided by the candidate's Counselor Proposer, Nominating Members and peers are considered.

SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER AWS Member No. The proposer wi l l serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. The proposer is encouraged to include a detailed biography of the candidate and letters of recommendation from individuals describing the specific accomplishments of the can- didate. Signatures on this nominating form, or supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the proposer. Signatures may be acquired by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the sig- natures are secured, the total package should be submitted.



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American Welding Society

Nomination of AWS Counselor

I. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND In 1999, the American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize indi-

vidual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an individual's career of outstanding accomplishment.

To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in the welding industry by one or more of the following:

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding industry. (The individual's organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, VlCA, NEMA, NSRP SP7 or other similar groups.)

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made substantial contribution to training and vocational education in the welding industry. (The individual's organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of partici pation of its employees in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, VlCA, NEMA, NSRP SP7 or other similar groups.)


Candidates for Counselor shall have at least 10 years of membership in AWS. Each candidate for Counselor shall be nominated by at least five members of the Society.

C. Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS headquarters.

D. Nominations must be submitted to AWS headquarters no later than February 1 of the year prior to that in which the award is to be presented.

E. Nominations shall remain valid for three years. F. All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence. G. Candidates who have been elected as Fellows of AWS shall not be eligible for

election as Counselors. Candidates may not be nominated for both of these awards at the same time.

III. NUMBER OF COUNSELORS TO BE SELECTED Maximum of 10 Counselors selected, as determined by the committee

Return comoleted Counselor nomination package to:

Wendy S. Reeve American Welding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Road Miami, FL 33126

Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 215


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Reader Reacts to NASCAR Article

The fo//ow/n~/euer was sent by a reader who takes/ssue w/th Jerry Uurach/~ att/c/e on welding for NASCAR that appeared in the April 2003 issue o f the Welding Journal. Uttrachi's response follows~

Dear Editor.

As a thirty-year member of the American Welding Society, I would like to thank you for the referenced ar t ide ( "NASCAR Race Team Demands Quality Welds") in the American Welder section of the Journal Being the more hands-on type of welding engineer (LeToumeau College, BSWE '74) that I am, I have enjoyed these types of articles more often. I usually glean some tidbit of information that is more directly appfica- ble to my current posit ion than the research supplement~

While many of the points brought out in this article are valid and informative, I feel care must be taken when painting with such a broad brush. For instance, I happen to have worked as a welding engineer at a weU-known ~ s t Coast shipyard in the f~st days of my career, and my last perusal of MIL-STD-278 said that the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process was not permit- ted in the short circuit are mede~ an excep- tion that seems slightly overlooked by Mr. Uttradd when he states: "The GMAW process is used extemively in industry to make very high-quality, critical welds in items such as submarine hulls."

We have to remember to whom we are writing when making such blanket state- ment~ F'LrSt of all, the majority of guys who build race cars are not going to read the Jouma/or a g4dd/ng Handboo~ Second, I have maintained for years that sanctioning bodies should require more testing of the people who fabricate these vehicles to assure quality weld depos i~ It is too easy to create incomplete fusion with the typical GMAW short ci tmit arc power supply that most shops have (i.e., a bottom-end body shop-type machine that can only handle 0.023-in.-, perhaps O.035-in.-diameter wire max) as the operator progresses around a small-diameter (less than 2-in.) tube at odd angles, and sometimes with shallow angles of intersection, with quite a few stops and starts. You v~mld not believe some of the techniques I have seen utilized with this process in the field. Mr. Uttrachi does state in his mmma~, "resulting welds should be checked and verified to be sure the T meet the requirements." Again, my point is I don't befieve NASCAR has any require-

ments, and certainly not for any of the fab- ricators, whether they are on a team or working for one of the many chassis manu- facturers who provide bare barnes to cus- tomer~ We, the so-called extorts, need to be telling these people they must do testing before the driver straps in - - not after the fact as they, the sanctioning body, try to determine the cause of a failure after a major accident. It is neglect on the part of everyone involved to ~ anyone who claims to be a fabricator to pick up a torch and "have at it" in a fife-and-death situa- tion such as this. We have lost too many drivers in crashes over the years to allow this to continue.

I also read with interest the sidebar atli- d e discussing the welding of 4130 chrome moly. There certainly seems to be a lot of difference of opinion about the proper technique for welding this matedal. For the past six years, I have been working for a major w e H - n ~ x ~ : d chassis manufaO~urer in Indianapolis where we have put our preduct to the test at the Indy 500, the 24 Horns of Daytona, and LeMans, as well as the pounding punishment of the 12 Hours of Sebringo to name a few. In addition, we have modified a few Winston Cop-type cars to improve their handling characteris- tics. All of our msl~usion components are 4130, ranging in thickness fium 0.035 to 0.5 in. All threaded bushing inserts are machined firom solid 4130. We do not use any preheat and utilize the GTAW process exclusively with ER80S-D2 filler meta l Components that need to remain in fixtur- ing to maintain dimensional stability are "stress relieved" with an oxyfuei torch at 95ffF, checked by a temperamre-indica6ng crayon. Components of a more highly stressed nature that require machining after welding are vaoJum stress-relieved at I100°F by a local vendor. Most compo- nents are Magnaflexed* for any pom~oility of craddng. Most welding of 4130 is acomn- plished with the aid of a pulsed-type cur- rent either with the remote foot control or power supply timers. It is significant to note that the Hobart Brothet~ Company deter- mined this type of technique can produce welds higher in strength than welds made with straight nonpulsed cmrenL

I believe the National Hot Rod Association has more stringent specific requirements for the fabrication of frames made of 4130 tubing.

Additionally, shop practice can tend to be a bit abusive with this material, includ- ing autogenous welds, and placement of weld beads without regard to interpass temperature control. The AWS-recom- mended practice for this material does not cover thickness less than )t in., there-

fore I would soficit further research in this area, particularly in regard to the amount of preheat required.

It may sound like I am talking out of both sides of my mouth when I tell you my employer does not require any testing of our personnel to determine operator abili- ty or qualification. We usually do a cursory test when a person interviews or tries out for the position as fabricator, but, on the other hand, we are utilizing the GTAW process and it is more difficult to have incomplete fusion with this process.

I trust that you and Mr. Uttrachi, as well as anyone else who may read these com- ments, will take them as constructive, and if I can provide any further feedback, please do not hesitate to contact me at your earli- est convenience. Keep up the good work.

Keith Wyckoff Indianapolis, Ind.

Mr. Wyd¢o~

You m/se some/nterest/ng ~ You are obv/oudy ~ v e r m / ~ t h not on/y the ma to / a /b t a a /m race c a r ~ prac- t / ~ I agree / t~ ~ when you m a ~

x ~ c h one mustfor a short ani- c/~ but I be/ ie~ the recommendagons made by Bob B / t ~ and ~ a r e co, m r - va6ve. I ' //prov/de die reason"

F ~ , d=e use of skon o~cu/t w / = / ~ GMAW was discussed mrth Bob Bitzk'y in a "~ench wdd in f smion after the t ra in~ Bob is an erpert in pulsed GMAW, having worked in theAbcoR&Dlabonuocywhen the procms was devdope~ Bob is also an exrdlent ~ He felt puised G M A W mmid not be as good a choice as shon ci~mit GMA W for this ~ for opomor weid control reasons. The ~ t h i c k n m ~ ana ~nt ,,x~o~ ~ ma~ skon cir- cuit GMAW ide~ for the interseoh~ tube joints. You'It noce ke did mention ~ tke ~c at ~ k,,di~ e,!ge of ~ weta ~o~ ~ skon ~-to-,,,o,*. ~ano~ and the need ~o be a " ~ e d acktee." lt's kard to ~ the need to be a "ddllat wet s . " The Navy does sVecey the use of puise G M A W o n hmvy sections when mdd- ing out of ~taon,- however for the thict- n e s s e s a n d j o i n t s ~ i n t h i s a p p & m i ~ short cb'odt GMA W is the proper cho~-

Second, welding 4130. Your work on ~laing 4130 for mce cars cotainly is i m l m m ~ and it appears you are t a t f ~ aU the p,ecautions. The use o f ERSOS-D2 fdler materialwasmentiouedintheart ic le-The w a y y o = a r e ~ i t s o u n d s [ m e . You mendon lkat some welden are making =utogenous GTA welds in 4130, skouldnotbedo~ T k e ~ k i g k c a r -

B',Zol JULY 2003 I

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bon deposit is very crack sensMve. In fact, the amount o f filler material added to the joint is also an important factor, especially when using ER8OS-D2 filler material. When GTA welding, sufficient filler materi- al must be added to dilute the high carbon going into the weld deposit from the base material. The use o f ER70S-2 is also being widely recommended. I believe this is a more conservative approach for the general race car fabricator As mentioned in the article, when needed to offset the under- match in weld strength, a sligh#y larger fil- let weld or the use o f gussets can be employed. It is o f interest to note that NASCAR requires the use o f gussets on intersecting tube joints, even on carbon steel materials. See the following Internet sites, from a consultant to the race car welding field and the Art Morrison dragster frame company, who recommend and use this class welding material on their NHRA approved frames: http:/Avww.archive.metalformingmagazine

.com/2001/O 1/Lincoln.pdf http:/Avww.artmorrison.com/

F_DragsterChassis.htm I appreciated your comments, input, and

experience. As mentioned above, there are a number of reasons a skilled welder needs to be employed to make these critical welds.

Jerry Uttrachi Florence, S. C.

. Chain Gang.

A whole gang isn't needed with H&Jvl's Master Chain Clamp. One person cma f , lf '~ll~quickly and safely perform perfect fit-ups of flanges, T's and ~ h ~elbows in minutes with this clamp. Each Single or Double ~ ~ l i Master Chain Clamp works 4"- to 16"- (114mm to Z "lllllV~ 406mm) diameter pipeti~gs. MdiUonal chain links

can be added for larger pipe sizes. The Single Clamp weig J ¢ ' ~ and the Double Clamp weighs 56 [bs. when fully assembled. E ~ clamp can be streamlined for smalhr-sized pipe by simply removing any ex

links and jackbars. Break free of the old style clamps! H&M's versatile clam , i system makes welding setup, positioning and alignment faster, easier and t

Pipe Beveling Machine Company, Inc. 311 L 3rtl St. / Tulsa, OK 74120-2417 (918) 582-9984 / Fax (918) 582-9989 E-lag: [emailprotected] / w~itmplpe.com

Circle No. 20 on Reader Info-Card

The commercial diving industry wants qualified

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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (24)


Q: we have qualified welding procedures for 409 stainless steel without difficulty. Now, in an attempt to make the same exhaust system parts with higher corrosion resistance, we have tried to qualify welding procedures for 430 stainless. We couldn't locate a source of ER430 wire, so we tried ER308LSL Using the 409, welded with 409 filler metal, we could pass a transverse face bend test and a trans- verse root bend test. But the 430 samples break beside the weld. I don't think this can be due to using ER308LSi filler metal. I thought 430 stainless is a ferritic stainless, just like 409, and is not supposed to be hard- enable, but these samples all seem hard be- side the weld. Does the use of nonmatching filler metal have anything to do with this? What is the problem here?

A-" To begin, I agree with you that using ER308LSi is not the cause of your problem. Type 430 stainless steel is commonly described as a ferritic stainless steel, but that is a bit of an oversimplification. We can think of ferritic stainless steels as having been developed in three generations. Working backward, the most modem ferritic stainless steels, like 444, were developed after steelmakers became ef-

Table 1 - - Representatives of Three Generations of Nominally Ferritic Stainless Steels

Generation UNS T y p e %C %Mn %P %S %Si %Cr %Ni %Mo Other No. %

1 $43000 430 0.12. 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.0 0.75 max. max. max. max. max. to 18.0 max

2 $40900 409 0.030 1 .00 0.040 0.020 1.00 10.5 0.50 - N max. max. max. max. max. to 11.7 max. 0.030


3 $44400 444 0.025 1 . 0 0 0.040 0.030 1.00 17.5 1.00 1.75 N max. max. max. max. max. to 19.5 max. to 2_50 0.035

m a x . 0~)

( • There are t h r e e subdivisions of 409 with slightly different requirements. U N S $40910 contains Ti = 6x (C+N) min., 0.50% max.; = 0.17% max. U N S $40920 contains Ti = 8x (C+N) rain., 0.15 to 0.50%; Nb = 0.10% max. U N S $40930 contains

(Ti + Nb) = [0.08% + 8x(C+N) rain., 0.75% max.; Ti = 0.05% min.]. All are included under the U N S $40900 umbrella.

(b) ( T i + N b ) = [0.20% + 4x(C+N)] min., 0.80% max.

Table 2 - - Type 439 Ferritic Stainless Steel

Generation UNS T y p e %C %Mn %P %S %Si %Cr %Ni %Mo No.

2 $43035 439 0.030 1 .00 0.040 0.030 1.00 17.0 0.50 - max. max. max. max. max. to 19.0 max.

(c) (T i +N b ) = [0.20% + 4x(C+N)] rain., 1.10% max.; AI = 0.15% max.

ficient at decarburizing iron-chromium melts so they contain 0.025% C or less. These third-

Other %

N 0.030 m a x . t c)

generation ferritic stainless steels are ferritic at all temperatures, so they are completely

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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (25)

nonhardenable (excluding long time aging to precipitate intermetallic compounds). The predecessor to these very low carbon ferritic stainless steels is the second generation, those stainless steels with a little more carbon but with alloy elements (Ti, AI, Nb) added to tie up the carbon at high temperatures and/or promote ferrite. Your Type 409 is an example of this second generation of ferritic stainless steels. Through the 1997 version of ASTM A240, 409 was permitted to contain up to 0.08% C, which sometimes allowed traces of austenite to form under certain circum- stances. The 1998 version of ASTM A240 re- duced the allowable carbon in 409 to 0.030%, which largely eliminated traces of austenite at high temperatures. The still older first gen- eration of ferritic stainless steels includes those with appreciable carbon but no extra alloy elements to tie up the carbon or pro- mote ferrite. This first generation of ferritic stainless steels includes your Type 430 (up to 0.12% C). As originally developed, they tended to contain considerable free carbon, and they still largely do today. Table 1 lists compositions of these three ferritic stainless steels, as given in ASTM A240, 2003 version.

In the annealed condition, as Type 430 would normally be supplied, with a normal carbon content of about 0.07%, the mi- crostructure consists of scattered chromium carbides in a matrix of ferrite. ASTM A240 requires it to be soft (89 Rockwell B hard- ness maximum) and ductile (20% or 22% elongation in 2 in., minimum, depending upon thickness). However, any subsequent exposure to temperatures above about 1650°F (900°C), as occurs in the heat- affected zone of a weld, will cause at least part of these carbides to dissolve and austen- ite to form in place of the carbides and in place of some of the ferrite. This austenite will be high in carbon. On cooling after weld- ing, this austenite will mainly transform to martensite, with quite detrimental effects on the cross-weld ductility. This, I expect, is the root cause of your problem.

This austenite formation should not be viewed as all bad. The austenite effectively prevents grain growth of the ferrite, a prob- lem that plagues the third generation of fer- ritic stainless steels. While the third genera- tion of ferritic stainless steels has outstanding corrosion resistance, the loss of ductility and, especially, of toughness in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a major limitation to their more widespread application.

There are two ways your problem can be solved. One way would be to perform a post- weld heat treatment to return the HAZ to its annealed condition. This can be accom- plished at about 1450°F (790°C), in as little as 5 min at temperature, followed by air cooling. At this temperature, the scattered chromium carbides precipitate again, and the martensite, with carbon removed, be- comes ferrite.

If postweld heat treatment is not accept- able, and you cannot live with the reduced

cross-weld ductility, then I think you have to change base metals. You indicated that you wanted an improvement in corrosion resist- ance over that of 409, which steered you to the 17% Cr of 430. I suggest you consider switching to Type 439 stainless steel. This is a low carbon, 18% Cr ferritic stainless steel sta- bilized with titanium, much as your 409 is sta- bilized - - Table 2. You can continue using ER308LSi filler metal, or you can obtain tu- bular metal-cored welding wires that match the composition of the 439 stainless. Type 439 has a proven track record in automotive ex- haust system components, so there should be no concern about making this change. ~1,

DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is Technical Director for Stainless and High-Alloy Product Development for The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

He is a member o f the A WS A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Filler Metals; A WS D1 Structural Welding Committee, Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Welding; and a member and past chair of the Welding Research Council Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels and Nickel Base Alloys. Questions may be sent to Mr. Kotecki c/o Welding Journal, 550 N W LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126 or via e-mail at [emailprotected].

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Simulation Software for Robot Programming Developed

WeldPRO is a simulation tool for ro- botic arc welding and cutting processes. The technology simplifies 3-D program- ming of work cell functions by importing CAD models of tooling and workpieces.

FANUC Robotics 3900 W. Hamlin Rd., Rochester Hills, MI 48309


Laser Beam Cutting System Introduced

The Mark II HS 4000-W CO 2 laser

beam cutting system automatically adjusts to sheet metal thicknesses from very thin to 0.75-in. plate and also processes pre- formed sheet metal and pipe.

Mazak Nissho lwai 140 E. State Pkwy., Schaumburg, IL 60173


Replacement Plasma Torch Fits Most Systems

The SL100" 1Torch TM RPT plasma torch fits most plasma cutting systems and a variety of start systems. Tip tuning elim-

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Thermal Dynamics Corporation 16052 Swingley Ridge Rd., Ste. 300 St. Louis, MO 63017


Digital Inverter Power Sources Include Network Features

The Power Wave* 455M robotic power sources feature capabilities for high-speed waveform control for a variety of welding processes and materials. Networking ca- pabilities allow the power sources to com- municate with other industrial machines to create an integrated welding cell.

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Portable Fume Collector Uses 3 Filter Stages

The self-contained Zephyr II* fume and dust collector uses three independ-

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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (27)

ent stages of filtration to remove welding and soldering fumes, grinding dust, and o ther a i rborne particles. The unit has a capacity of 700 ~/min.

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sizes 7 to 10 and with PVC dots in sizes 7 and 9. Plated blouse sleeves are available in 12- and 18-in. lengths.

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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (29)

o BEST ne-iwo

Punch WsIding


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Circle No. 33 on Reader Info-Card

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the Compe(itlon Every Time,

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Circle No. 3 on Reader Info-Card

-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (32)

Chain clamp is used to align and hoM in position 48-in. pipe for welding.

Thousands of dollars in labor are lost annually by companies continuing to use old-fashioned methods to align pipes and fittings, such as weld-on lugs, hydraulic bottle jacks, or ratchet cable pullers, to critically align pipe ends. Companies today cannot afford the loss in productivity or to have their product rejected if it fails to meet alignment criteria.

Personnel are sometimes asked to hold a heavy pipe or fitting in place while the welder tack welds the pipe to the fitting. This process presents a risk of back injury to the person holding the pipe or fitting. Also, the valve or fitting is sometimes incorrectly aligned and the tack welds must be removed and rewelded.

The welding distributor must have sources for companies to purchase the proper

Story based on information provided by Mathey Dearman (www.mathey.com), Tulsa, Okla.

mtI=ll JULY 2003 [

-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (33)

clamping equipment to align pipes and fit- tings faster without sacrificing the safety of the welder.

When proper clamping devices

are employed, the operator is able to safely

and precisely align and reform the pipe or fittings.

Clamps to Fit the Application

Five different types of alignment clamps are on the market to cover every aspect of pipe and fitting alignment and reforming needs of companies. Whether the work- place is a small tube or large vessel, a clamp is available to fit the customer's require- ments. Clamps are available to internally or externally align pipe or shell diameters from ~ in. to 20 ft (9.5 mm to 6 m). Clamps are available to reform pipes or tubes with a wall thickness up to Schedule 80 with an out-of-round condition up to 2 in.

Clamping systems are available for all the purposes listed below.

1) To align and reform the mating side of the weld joint.

2) To align and reform both sides of the weld joint.

3) To align and reform pipes, tubes, elbows, tees, flanges, and other fittings.

4) For rounding pipes. 5) To hold tubes in position for orbital

welding. 6) Pneumatic or hydraulic internal

alignment clamps to align the interior of pipe or fittings.

7) For full-circle welding of the pipe without removal of the clamp.

8) To hold pipe ends against a consum- able welding insert.

9) To hold pipes in place on jack stands. 10) For carbon steel, stainless steel, and

other specialty alloys.

l~pes of Clamping Systems Available

Chain-type clamps align and reform pipe diameters as small as 1 in. (25 mm) and as large as 20 ft (6 m). Chain damps allow pipe, elbow, tee, flange, and other fittings to be held safely and securely in place during the alignment and welding process. Each style of chain clamp is designed to reform multiple pipe sizes. Most manufacturers of this style clamp have enough clearance under the jack- bar to permit the use of a gas metal arc weld- ing gun or gas tungsten arc welding torch. The inside or outside of the pipe can be aligned with these clamps. Accessories such as level and support devices assist the welder in holding and accurately positioning pipe or fittings for welding. Other accessories such as spacing screws will allow the operator to accurately adjust the weld root opening with- out risk of injury.

Cage clamps are available for pipe sizes 2 to 60 in. (51 to 1524 mm). These cable or rigid frame clamps are designed for rapidly aligning the outside diameter and come in two basic styles. The "tack type" cage clamp

is used to align pipes for tack welding. The "no-tack" type allows the joint to be com- pletely welded without removal of the clamp. These clamps are designed to align only one pipe size per clamp. The clamps are available in hand lever, ratchet, and hydraulic models.

Full-circle steel-type clamps are available for pipe sizes 6 to 72 in. (152 to 1829 ram) and have multiple contact points to handle aligning, reforming, or rounding applications. These clamps are designed to put pressure on the high point of the pipe or shell and bring them into alignment. The welder is able to do a 100% weld and grind without removal of this type of clamp.

Frame-type clamping devices that make three-point contact with the pipe are avail- able for pipe sizes 1 to 14.5 in. (25 to 368 mm). These clamps adjust from one pipe size to an- other by means of a T-handle located at the top of the clamp. A range of three or four pipe sizes can be covered with one clamp. The clamps can be used to align the inside or out- side of carbon steel or stainless steel pipes. These clamps are used for aligning the pipes and not for reforming the pipe wall.

Some small precision clamps, with a pipe range from ~ to 12 in. (9.5 to 305 mm), have jaws that work independently of each other. They align and securely hold two sections of small diameter steel or stainless steel pipe or tubing for autogenous welding. The radial clearance and distance between the jaws is such that most orbital welding heads will fit between them. Pipes or tubes align with the clamps. The damps are available in both car- bon steel and stainless steel to complete welds on small diameter steel and stainless steel pipes and tubes.

Internal hydraulic and pneumatic align- ment clamps are used mainly for pipeline ap- plications and are available for pipe sizes 6 to 60 in. (152 to 1524 mm). These clamps cover a range of one to six pipe sizes, de- pending upon the make and model. These clamps allow a full circle to be completed without obstruction. An automated welding

system used in conjunction with the clamp increases productivity, lowers weld rejects, and reduces operator fatigue.

Safety Considerations

Pipe clamping devices help speed the aligning process, lowering operator fatigue. These clamping devices eliminate hydraulic jacks, come-a-longs, and weld-on lugs, which can be an extreme safety hazard to all per- sonnel involved in the aligning and reform- ing process. When proper clamping devices are employed, the operator is able to safely and precisely align and reform the pipe or fit- tings. Needless cutting and regrinding are not required because the two pipes or fittings are mated correctly the first time.

Prior to operating the equipment, it should be checked for proper operation and any required maintenance. If an air, hy- draulic, or electrical power source powers the tool, it should be disconnected from the equipment prior to inspection or mainte- nance. The tool should never be used if it is not in proper working order.

The maintenance area should be kept as clean as possible to prevent foreign debris, such as sand, grinding dust, or metal shav- ings, from being introduced into the final as- sembly as subcomponents are installed. High- temperature grease, such as gun grease, that is not water-soluble should always used to lu- bricate the compenents of the tool. Lithium grease is not recommended.

Clamps used to align and/or reform pipes and fittings are some of the most misunder- stood and misused pieces of equipment. Due to the weights and tensile strengths of pipes, it is extremely important that operators re- ceive adequate training on the reforming and aligning of pipes to fittings, valves, and flanges. Personnel who use makeshift devices or the incorrect clamp for an application cause many accidents.

Know Your Needs The following points should be consid-

ered when selecting a clamp:

• Diameter of the pipe

• Pipe wall thickness

• Tensile strength

• Type of material

• Need for alignment and reforming

• Operator fatigue.

The customer service departments of clamping device manufacturers are always available to assist the welding distributor in selecting the right clamp to fit the customer's application. •


-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (34)

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A method is proposed for welding without a track or

one-sided bevel ng


By S. B. Zhang, D. Sun, and P. Xu

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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (35)

By utilizing large, expensive equip- ment with a track and undertaking multipass welding and beveling of steel plate, conventional arc welding processes for large steel structures suffer from low productivity and high costs (Refs. 1-4). On smaller struc- tures, the normal practice is to make welds in butt joints from both sides of the plate to achieve complete joint penetration. In large steel structures, however, the ideal approach is to complete welds in butt joints from one side since it is difficult, for example, to turn a ship over for welding the sec- ond side. This has led to the devel- opment of complete joint penetration welding from one side.

It is widely known that complete joint penetration welding from one side can typically be achieved in two ways. First, methods have been proposed to sense joint penetration, with in- frared sensing, ultrasound, or pool os- cillation for the gas tungsten arc weld- ing process (Refs. 5-8), or by meas- uring the keyhole to control weld pen- etration for the plasma arc welding process (Refs. 9, 10). However, sense and control of weld penetration

(A)A ~ from front


i ~ ~ Fixing plate

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Movable backing


-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (36)

Wire feeder j- D. C. Power ]

Roller wheel unit Torch

Movable backing

VW'mh \

Guide wheel unit

~ m m x a ~ metal ~ate

Table 1 - - Welding Parameters

Material: HSLA-DH-36 Thickness: ~ in.

Test No. 1 2

Position Flat Flat Joint Preparation Square Butt Square Butt Preexisting Root Opening 4.5 mm (0.18 in.) 3 mm (0.12 in.) Wire Feed Speed 254 cm/min (100 in./min) 254 cm/min (100 in./min) Wire Size 0.9 mm (0.035 in.) 0.9 mm (0.035 in.) Current 300 A 340 A Travel Speed 20 cm/min (7.8 in./min) 24 cm/min (9.4 in./min) Shielding Gas 18.4 L/min (40 ft3/h) 18.4 L/min (40 ft3/h) Plasma Gas 2.3 L/min (5 ft3/h) 2.3 L/min (5 ft3/h) Orifice 3.8 mm (0.15 in.) 3.8 mm (0.15 in.)

depend significantly on welding conditions. When a joint opening is not constant throughout an entire weld interface, sense and control of weld penetration will be very difficult for an automated arc welding process.

The second approach is to use a weld backing, made from copper or ceramic, with a length equal to the length of the weld in- terface and a configuration fit to the shape of the interface, which is held against the underside of the weld zone where a groove is formed. The cost of the material, pro- cessing, and application for these conven- tional weld backings increases with the length of the weld interface. In addition, the installation and removal of such back- ings in many applications are difficult. In fact, either one-sided or two-sided welding of a complete joint penetration weld of a butt joint using conventional arc welding processes requires a multipass weld. Con- ventional arc welding equipment normally employs a track for making a long weld, so joint tracking plays a critical role in many automatic welding processes (Ref. 12). The expense and complexity of conventional arc

al¢~m JULY 2003 [ I

welding processes have forced engineers to explore new technologies in welding large steel structures (Refs. 2, 13).

The proposed project was to develop an innovation, "Trackless Movement and Full Penetration" (TMFP) arc welding, in which complete joint penetration and joint track- ing are integrated. The basic TMFP proto- type was designed according to the require- ments of arc welding production. Based on this apparatus, the flux cored wire plasma arc welding process was studied and devel- oped for high-strength steel (DH-36). The preliminary experimental results verified that the proposed TMFP apparatus and process were able to perform trackless movement and complete joint penetration welding. This technology can be used to perform one-sided, one-pass welding, sub- stantially simplifying the automated arc welding system, for fabricating butt joints of thick metal plates of large structures.

T h e T M F P A p p a r a t u s

The prototype apparatus was designed for a butt joint based on a preexisting root

opening (3-5 mm) in a weld interface. Fig- ure 1 illustrates the TMFP apparatus. The prototype is shown in Fig. 2. In the appara- tus, the movable weld backing is held against the underside of the weld to support liquid metal and to control the backside bead. The movable weld backing and a fix- ing plate of the weld head are arranged un- derside and front side of the weld interface, respectively, using a connecting member through the preexisting root opening of the interface. Thus, the weld backing moves synchronously with the weld head along the entire weld interface to continuously per- form complete joint penetration welding. Three compression springs are installed in one guided wheel unit and two roller units to hold the movable backing against the un- derside of the workpiece in flat position welding. The movable backing is water cooled and made of copper. CO 2 is used as a back purge gas to protect the backside weld region from atmospheric contamina- tion (by oxygen and nitrogen) for the weld- ing of alloy steel materials.

In order to perform trackless movement, the preexisting root opening acts as a"guide slot," in which a guide wheel unit can track the joint - - Fig. 3. In practical application, the guide wheel unit is placed ahead of the weld head, and a metal guide wheel with in- clined planes makes contact within the root opening to guide the apparatus along the weld interface, automatically providing joint tracking without an external track or joint tracking device. As shown in Fig. 4, an electric or manual winch can be placed at the end of the plates to be welded, to drag the welding apparatus by a chain along the weld interface, irrespective of the length, configuration, or other factors of the butt joint. This system is not limited by an exter- nal track, and provides an accurate, reliable, and flexible joint tracking technique for the arc welding of long butt joints.

Another design model, shown in Fig. 5, has a trackless mechanized carriage for the movable backing. A servomotor or a han- dle can be used to drive a gear mechanism

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Weld Pool

ys-sb (slag-solid backing) ys-lm (slag-liquid metal)



Fig. 7 - - Cross section micrograph o f a weld in a butt joint using TMFP flux cored wire plasma arc welding, 3-mm (0.12-in.) preexisting joint opening.

to move the carriage with the backing and weld head along the weld interface.

TMFP Plasma Arc Welding Process

The TMFP technology can utilize a plasma arc to melt the weld joint zone and weld metal to fill the preexisting root open- ing and form the weld reinforcement using a movable backing. A plasma arc is pre- ferred over a non-constricted arc because of its higher concentrated heat and higher temperature (Ref. 14). Thus, a plasma arc can deeply penetrate metal materials and weld thick plates in some applications.

In addition, with the plasma arc process, flux cored wire can be added to the leading edge of the weld pool using a mechanized

wire feeder. Based on its physical and chem- ical characteristics, flux cored wire can pro- vide the following effects as a filler metal:

• A layer of liquid slag between the moveable backing and the liquid metal of the backside weld pool will act as a lubri- cant to increase the sliding ability of the movable backing. A working model of the liquid slag film in this process (Fig. 6) shows the effects of the film in contact with the liquid metal and the solid backing. The in- terracial surface tensions of the slag-liquid metal and the slag-solid backing can be al- tered by changing or adjusting the compo- nents in the flux cored wire (Ref. 15) so that the liquid slag of the flux cored wire can act as a lubricant in this process.

• The layer of liquid slag acts as a very efficient heat insulator and thus reduces

the rapid dissipation of the heat of the arc (Ref. 15) to protect the backing from the high temperature of the plasma arc.

• The liquid slag film can provide a layer of shielding from atmospheric con- tamination (oxygen and nitrogen) for the weld pool.

• The layer can substantially improve the composition and microstructure of the weld and mechanical properties of the weld joint due to an increase of alloy element transfer efficiency and deoxidation.

Therefore, the process of flux cored plasma arc welding is proposed for com- plete joint penetration welds in large steel structures in a single pass, without the preparation of bevels.

Preliminary trials of TMFP welds in square butt joints with a preexisting root opening, with flux cored wire (ET1T-1) as a filler material, were conducted on ~-in.- thick plates of high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA-DH-36). The dimensions of the specimens were 304 x 76 × 9.5 mm (12 × 3 x 3/, in.). The welding parameters and con- ditions are shown in Table 1. Figure 7 shows the cross section micrograph of a butt joint using the trial process.

The preliminary results showed that the apparatus implemented trackless move- ment and complete joint penetration of HSLA materials. They also proved that flux cored plasma arc welding was able to make a crack-free and porosity-free weld, as shown in Fig. 7. Compared with conven- tional arc welding methods, such as sub- merged arc welding (SAW), the process significantly increases weld penetration under low heat input to the weldment. The maximum allowable heat input for weld- ing HSLA steel materials is limited to less than 60,000 J/in. (Refs. 2, 14). Due to the inherent nature of one-sided SAW, heat input limitations of HSLA steels are often exceeded (Refs. 2, 14). These experiments demonstated that this process can perform complete joint penetration welding of a ~- in.-thickness butt joint from one side with


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heat input of less that 50,000 J/in., com- pared to 78,000 J/in. for SAW (Ref. 16).

In addition, reinforcement of the under- side of the weld was obtained using the re- movable backing, as seen in Fig. 7. In order to obtain reinforcement of both sides of the weld, a minimum weld metal deposition rate will depend on the thickness of the metal plates to be welded and the preexist- ing root opening, as shown in Fig. 8. The minimum weld metal deposition rate Rmi n (in kg/h) can be calculated from the follow- ing expression:

Rmi n = T x W X vw X g X 1000

where T is the thickness (m) of the base metal plates to be welded, Wis the pre-ex- isting root opening (m), v w is the welding speed (m/h), and g is the specific gravity of steel (7.8 tons/m3). In practical applications, the weld metal deposition rate should be higher than Rmi n to fully fill the root open- ing to make reinforcements to both sides of the weld. Hence, for a complete joint penetration single-pass weld with rein- forcements in both sides, the welding parameters, such as plasma arc current, wire feed speed, travel speed, and filler metal diameter need to be calculated prior to welding. The preliminary experimental results demonstrated that one of the ad- vantages of the process is that the weld metal deposition rate can be adjusted for welding parameters and root opening so that both-side reinforcements can be controlled. Another advantage is high alloy transfer efficiency from the flux cored wire to control the composition of the deposited metal.

Commerc ia l Potent ia l and Future Work

Compared with conventional arc weld- ing processes for welding large steel struc-

tures, the new TMFP flux cored plasma arc welding process will bring the follow- ing advantages: • Complete joint penetration welding of butt joints with consistent quality. • Implementa t ion of automatic joint tracking for long welds without the limi- tations of a track. • Significant simplification of automatic arc welding equipment with a correspon- ding reduction in production costs.

This process has great commercial po- tential in the heavy steel fabrication in- dustries such as shipbuilding and manu- facturing of high-pressure vessels, pipe, and heavy cranes.

Continuing developmental research is being performed to improve the success- ful application of the TMFP arc welding processes. Extensive investigation of TMFP arc welding technology is ongoing to develop other arc welding processes.

The submerged arc welding process has found the widest application in heavy weldments because of its high welding cur- rent and high deposition rate. In the sub- merged arc welding process, the flux, which is delivered to the area just ahead of the welding electrode, may be melted under the arc and create a layer of liquid slag between the movable backing and backside weld pool. Therefore, sub- merged arc welding, along with flux cored self-shielding or shielding gas arc welding processes, based on the TMFP arc weld- ing mechanized apparatus will be studied for complete joint penetration welding of large steel structures. •


1. Lane, P. H. R., and Watkinson, E 1990. Progress in shipyard welding. Welding Review 9(1): 29-34.

2. McClellan, R. W 1988. One-sided welding of high-yield steels. Welding Journal 72(7): 25-30.

3. Bentley, A. E., and Marburger, S. J. 1992. Arc welding penetration control using quantitative feedback theory. Welding Journal 71(11): 397-s to 405-s.

4. Zhang, S. B., Zhang, Y. M., and Kovacevic, R. 1998. Noncontact ultrasonic sensing for seam tracking in arc welding processes. Journal of Man- ufacturing Science and Engineering 120(3): 60~608.

5. Chen, W, and Chin, B. A. 1990. Monitoring joint penetration using infrared sensing techniques. Welding Journal, 69(4): 181-s to 185-s.

6. Carlson, N. M., and Johnson, J. A. 1988. Ultrasonic sensing of weld pool penetration. Welding Journal 67(11): 239-s to 246-s.

7. Xiao, Y. H., and den Ouden, G. 1993. Weld pool oscillation during OTA welding of mild steel. Welding Journal 72(8): 428-s to 434-s.

8. Renwiek, R. J., and Richardson, R. W. 1983. Experimental investigation of GTA weld pool os- cillations. Welding Journal 62(2): 29-s to 35-s.

9. Zhang, S. B., and Zhang, Y. M. 2001. El- flux plasma charge-based sensing and control of joint penetration during keyhole plasma arc weld- ing. Welding Journal 80(7): 157-s tO 162-s.

10. Martinez, L. E, Marques, R. B., Mcclure, J. C., and Nunes, Jr., A. C. 1993. Front side key- hole detection in aluminum alloys. Welding Jour- nal 72(5): 49-51.

11. Hanright, J. 1986. Robotic arc welding under adaptive control-- a survey of current tech- nology. Welding Journal 65: (11) 19-24.

12. Cullison, A., and Irving, B. 1992. Where in the world is the weld? Welding Journal 71(8): 45-49.

13. Johnsen, M. R., and Cullison, A. 2002. What's new in production welding machines? Welding Journal 81 (8): 26--29.

14. Materials & Process Engineering Bookshelf. 1986. Welding high-strength steel, 39-43. Materials Park, Ohio: American Society for Materials.

15. Modenesi, P. J., and Apolinnario, E. R. 2001. TIG welding with single-component fluxes. Journal of the Material Processing Technology. 99:260-265.

16. O'Brien, Robert L., ed. 1991. Welding handbook, 8th ed., Vol. 2. 192-231.

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Fundamentals for Choosing a Posit oner

A positioner is a machine that will support and maneuver a part and place that part into the best working position.

The basic positioner was developed to allow a part to be fixtured onto a table, then tilted and rotated, allowing that part to be moved for flat position welding, which is cheaper and safer than welding out of position. By moving the part, the operator is situated in the best working position, thus reducing fatigue and poor quality welding. Welding in a flat position can also increase production.

Today, there are many types of positioners, each one designed to assist in a material-handling role.

Positioners range from a simple "lazy Susan" type turntable to several- axis units for robotic applications. Positioners are designed to handle loads up to several hundred thousand pounds. To select the correct positioner, you need to know what you will be doing with the positioner, what

DONALD R. BURGART (713) 682-9645 is Senior Applications Speciulist, Koike Aronson hu'., thmstmt. Tex.

~ a7

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is the maximum load of your work part, where is the center of gravity of your part, and what is the maximum dimensional size of the part.

The Select ion


A turntable is a single-axis unit with its table fixed in the horizontal position. The table will support a workpiece and allow the part to rotate clockwise or counter- clockwise either manually or by power. A turntable allows the operator to stay in one spot during operations such as flame cut- ting, assembling, inspection, or welding. Capacity range is unlimited for a turntable.

For sizing a turntable, first considera- tion is maximum weight of the part and then the center of gravity of that part. All turnta- bles are sized with a weight and a certain distance the center of gravity can be from the rotation axis. Besides weight consider- ation, table size and table height must also be discussed.

On large loads or at high speeds, iner- tia is also taken into consideration while sizing. Acceleration and deceleration times can be adjusted for inertia problems.

supported by both units. The location of the load in relationship to the centerline of the rotation axis (eccentric load) must also be held within the center of gravity rating of the machine.

With the headstock and tailstock, the rotation axis height must also be consid- ered when specifying a machine. The cen- ter height must be enough so the workpiece can rotate without hitting the floor. To com- pensate for this problem, most headstocks and tailstocks can be provided with either adjustable bases, sub-bases, or powered el- evation to raise the center line while rotat- ing. The power elevation feature also al- lows one to lower the work part back to the floor after rotation to allow better access for the welders or for assembly.

Often a set of head and tailstocks is used for parts that vary in length. When this ap- plication occurs, the headstock is usually bolted to the floor, and the tailstock is mounted on some type of track-guided car- riage. Carriages can be provided with ei- ther power motion or manual control.


The most common type of positioner is the tilt and turn. This positioner is normally

ance when rotated to prevent rotating or tilting the part into the floor.

What's Available

Positioners are available in a wide array of sizes, ranging from a 100-1b bench positioner to the 1,000,000-1b positioner.

Posi t ioners a re avai lable in several configurations, beginning with the small bench model with a typical weight capaci ty of less than 500 lb. Most units are provided with powered ro ta t ion but the tilt is p rovided with pins or a hand crank.

On the floor-mounted units, the rota- tion and tilt axes are powered. The eleva- tion can be fixed at one height, adjustable by pinning in place or with powered ele- vation. On larger machines with the height of the table fixed, the unit can be provided as a 45/90 unit. This allows the table to tilt from a flat position 45 deg backwards and 90 deg forward.

There are several other types of posi- tioners and positioning equipment. Uni- versal balance positioners, specialty posi- tioners, drop center positioners, skyhooks or two-axis positioners, and combination posit ioners are some of the different

>sitioners are available in a wide array of sizes, ranging a lO0-1b bench positioner to the 1,000,O00-1b positioner.

Headstock and Tallstock

Headstock and tailstock units are also single-axis units with the table in the verti- cal position. The headstock is a powered unit that will rotate about the table center- line. The tailstock is usually identical to the headstock except there are no provisions for power. The table is freewheeling. The headstock and tailstock are usually used to- gether for supporting and rotating long weldments. Typical applications would be trailers, truck beds, trusses, railcars, and elliptical vessels.

A headstock can also be used alone for applications where you need to have access to the end and sides of the workpiece.

For sizing a headstock and tailstock, begin with the maximum weight and cen- ter of gravity of the part from both the face of the table (overhung load) and (eccentric load) the centerline of the rotation axis. If the headstock is used alone, the overhung load, or the distance off the face of the table, must have its center of gravity within the rating of the unit. This dimension is a fixed distance based on load rating speci- fied by the equipment manufacturer. When used together as a set, the overhung load does not matter because the load is being

a two-axis machine that allows a workpiece to be loaded onto the table like a turntable and then tilted to a headstock position or greater.

A positioner can be configured with many different features and options. The most common is the floor-mounted model with 135-deg tilt and 360-deg continuous rotation. A standard 135-deg floor-mounted posi- tioner will usually rotate, tilt, and elevate. The rotate-and-tilt functions are normally powered, while the elevation is a set-up pro- cedure. These models are usually rated with a weight capacity of 1000 lb or more. The floor model 135-deg unit has a tilt axis that will go from a flat position and then tilt for- ward 135 deg until the table is facing 45 deg from the floor.

As with the turntable and head and tailstocks, when sizing a positioner, the first consideration is weight, then it is eccentric loading with an overhung load of the center of gravity.

As an example, a 2500-1b positioner would have a maximum load capacity of 2500 lb with the load being off center by the rated eccentric dimension. The load's center of gravity off the face of the table must also be within the overhung load rating. Consideration must also be taken to make sure the tilted part has swing clear-

types. There are also specially designed posit ioners to work with robots that provide a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.

Positioners today are not used just for moving a piece of steel around. Today's posit ioners work in all fields of mater ial handling.

Selecting for the Application

All posi t ioners will require the same basic information to size the correct one for your application. Below are some questions you should ask yourself to help get the right positioner for the job.

• What are you doing with the unit? • Do you need a turntable, headstock

and tailstock, or positioner? • What is the maximum weight of the

part? • Where is the center of gravity of that

part (both overhung and eccentric loading)?

• What is the maximum physical size of the part (swing radius)?

With this information, you will be able to look at a posi t ioner sizing chart and determine what posi t ioner will be required for your job.

II~:l JULY 2003 I

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American Welding Society

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Target audience: Everyone involved with welding, especially managers, supervisors, inspectors, leadmen, and engineers.

Experience the benefits of web-based training: • Study at your own pace, where you want, when you want • Over 40 hours of instruction for one low price • Videos and animations that highlight key points • Pre- and post-test questions to help you truly prepare

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Circle No. 38 on Reader Info-Card

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Understanding a few principles of positioner design will help your robot and positioner become an integrated whole


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interlocks, equipment safety interlocks, and coordinated motion with the robotic manipulator. If multiple welding power supplies are used, separate current paths for each power supply are recommended.

Choose from Many

The spectrum of robotic welding po- sitioners runs the gamut from the simple flat table to very complex multiaxis, servo-driven devices. The servo-driven head- and tailstock system might be the most common, versatile robotic welding positioner in use today. The application challenges of properly supporting and manipulating the load, providing suitable safety interlocks and weld ground return paths with this system, are representative of most robotic positioners.

ll~pes of Positioners

Simple positioners include stationary tables, manual indexing tables, and pneu- matic- or motor-driven indexing tables. Single-axis servo positioners include the servo-driven rotary table, cantilever-type headstock, and the headstock/tailstock

(HS/TS) configurations. Multiaxis servo positioners come in a wide variety of con- figurations, including the popular ferris- wheel type headstock/tailstock, the tilt and rotate (skyhook), and table/head- stock combinations. Also in this category are custom positioners with as many axes as required by the application - - Fig. 1

Process Requirements for Robotic Welding Positioners

Robotic welding power sources are so- phisticated pieces of equipment that re- quire suitable weld ground circuits to en- sure proper feedback and optimal per- formance. Noise and interference on the feedback circuits can cause poor quality or inconsistent welds in addition to other process problems.

Single welding gun systems must pro- vide a well-defined, low-resistance return current path. Some manufacturers return weld current through preloaded bearings. However, dedicated contact brushes with prescribed current paths are the pre- ferred method.

Multigun systems also must provide a low-resistance weld current return path.

However, it is recommended that the in- dividual welding gun circuits avoid shared current paths. This can cause cross talk between the power source feedback systems, resulting in poor weld control and inconsistent quality. Therefore, each weld system should have its own inde- pendent weld ground system - - Fig. 2.

Production tooling might require elec- trical I/O control signals, pneumatics, cooling water, and other peripherals. When reciprocating motion is required, managing the interconnecting cables and/or hoses gets more challenging. Ca- bles and hoses can tolerate a limited amount of reciprocating motion if they are properly managed, protected, and terminated. Common ways to manage re- ciprocating motion include using a through-hole on the rotational axis; en- ergy chains (flexible cable trays); slip rings (rotary connectors); or overhead suspension. Slip rings are required for continuous motion applications.

A high-quality robotic positioner should have features that allow it to re- peatably identify the "zero" or "home" position. This will help minimize robot program touch-ups after collisions or re-


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TI: Torch 1 T2: Torch 2 PSI: Power Supply 1 PS2: Power Supply 2




W ~ M:WD

Fig. 3 - - Method for determining bearing capacity of headstock.

Fig. 2 - - Schematic showing the progression from good to bad for current path systems.

pairs. The homing feature should be easy to use and repeatable. It can be accom- plished by using a metal or plastic pin, gauge, alignment tab, or other physical feature.

Safety Requirements - - Operator and Equipment Protection

The ANSI/RIA R15/06-1999 safety standard applies to robotic workcells and contains specific safety guidelines that must be followed to protect the operator and the robot. The equipment also must meet all applicable local, state, and fed- eral codes. Safety-related features of the positioner must integrate with the cell controller architecture and should in- clude dual-channel compatible switches or sensors, and emergency stopping (E- stop) capability.

The E-stop time and distance traveled is a performance characteristic of the po- sitioner. This should be tested under pre- scribed load and speed conditions. The documented results can be used to de- sign the operator safety plan for the pro- duction cell.

Part Support and Manipulat ion

Robotic welding positioners generally are rated by their capacity to support and manipulate the load, which includes both the weld tooling and the part. For table- type positioners, this represents the thrust capacity of the table bearing sys- tem. For headstock, HS/TS, and other multiaxis positioners, this represents the moment and radial capacity of the drive and free-end bearing systems. Single- or multiaxis positioners all must have the ability to manipulate the load in a smooth and controlled fashion. Excess vibration or settling time at the end of motion

might adversely affect cycle time and overall weld quality.

Headstock and headstock/tailstock positioners are commonly used in robotic cells due to their versatility and simplic- ity. When used in tandem, the operator can load one positioner while the robot is welding on the other one, thus improv- ing throughput. A detailed study of this configuration provides insight into evaluation of the other positioner types.

Calculating Load Capacity

The stand-alone headstock must sup- port the load in a cantilevered fashion. This creates high moment loads on the bearing system, which, in turn, defines the load capacity of the headstock. The moment load (M) equals the load (W) multiplied by the distance (D) from the bearing center and should not exceed the limits set by the bearing manufacturer-- Fig. 3. Many positioner manufacturers rate their headstocks at 50% of this bear- ing capacity value, providing a safety mar- gin for overload conditions.

The capacity of the headstock can be significantly increased with the addition of a tailstock (free-bearing support) be- cause the load is no longer cantilevered. Traditionally, the tooling has been rigidly mounted between the headstock and tail- stock bearing systems. This capacity can be modeled and the bearing loads (mo- ments) can be calculated using fixed- beam theory. The bearing moments are a function of the load distribution on the beam and the distance between the sup- port bearings. This limits the allowable span between the head and tailstocks. Additional disadvantages of this rigid tool mounting approach include the need for precise alignment between the head- stock and tailstock (including precision machine bases) and precision tooling. These combine to increase cost and limit

IPi JULY 2003 i

the bearing capacity of the positioner system.

An alternative to rigid tool mounting is a simply supported, or flexible, tool mounting system. The primary advan- tages of this approach include more controlled and predictable moment loads on the support bearings with no limita- tion on the span between the head and tailstocks. Additional advantages include less stringent alignment and tooling precision requirements - - Fig. 4.

The challenge of this approach is to allow the beam to flex while still control- ling the rotational motion. Generally this has been achieved with custom designs that might include "dog and pins," clevis pins, or other types of flexible rotational limiting devices. However, at least one robot manufacturer I now provides a cost- effective standard design that meets the challenges of simply supported beam mo- tion. This system allows up to two degrees of total misalignment and eliminates the need for precise alignment, costly ma- chined bases, and high-precision tooling.

Manipulat ing the Load

The headstock output torque is required to manipulate and hold the load in orientations required by the welding application. The available headstock output torque (Tr) can be calculated by multiplying the motor torque (Tm) by the total gear reduction ratio (R) - - Fig. 5.

Most positioner manufacturers rate their headstocks by holding torque, or the torque required to hold the load (W) in a horizontal orientation, at a prescribed distance (r) from the turning axis. However, no standard rating system exists, so when evaluating different posi- tioners, it is very important to understand how the positioner is rated to ensure it is capable of moving and controlling the intended load.

1. Motoman Inc.

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m M = FL/8 L = 3 meter pad span, M=O.38F


.~:.~ ---*} p--- D M = FD/2 D = 0.2 m offset, M=0.1F


Fig. 4 - - Load-bearing capacity o f a stand-alone headstock can be increased with a head- stock/tailstock setup.

As an example, one manufac turer might rate its 450-kg heads tock at 150- mm turning radius and require 50% rated motor torque under those condit ions. Ano t he r manufac turer might call the same motor-reducer combination a 500- kg headstock rated at 216-mm turning ra- dius and require 80% rated motor torque. While the headstocks might appear to have different ratings, they would be ex- pec ted to have identical per formance characteristics.

The motor-reducer torque is also re- quired to accelerate and decelerate the ap- plication load about the rotat ional axis. This torque is equal to the rotation mass moment of inertia (inertia, J) of the load multiplied by the angular acceleration and should not exceed the peak torque rating of the headstock.

Inertia is a property of the load and de- scribes the distribution of mass about the rotational axis. While crude estimates for the inertia can be calculated based upon the load material and geometry, today's 3- D modeling packages used to design tool- ing can provide very accurate estimates and should be used whenever possible.

The total iner t ia is also a significant factor in the control stability of the servo- driven headstock. This is generally eval- uated as the ratio of the reflected inertia (Jr) divided by the motor inertia (Jm)- The reflected inertia is the sum of the reducer inert ia (Ji) and the load inert ia (Jl) di- vided by ratio squared, Jr = Ji + JI/R2 - - Fig. 6. Most headstocks have a maximum recommended ref lected rat io (Jr/Jm) of 5 to 10, depending upon the total me- chanical stiffness of the headstock drive

system. Applications with reflected ratios approaching or exceeding the recom- mended limit may demonstrate poor con- trol stability, undesi rable vibrations, or motor overheating.

The root mean square (RMS) duty cycle torque is an average of the total torque requi rements (holding and mo- tion) for a given appl icat ion duty cycle. This value should be calculated and com- pared with the per formance specifica- tions of the p roposed headstock. Root mean square torque requi rements ex- ceeding the headstock ratings may cause servomotor overheat ing and reduced headstock life. High RMS values due to excessive load imbalance can sometimes be correc ted with the addi t ion of coun- terbalances, provided this does not result in excessive load inertia.

S u m m a r y

Robotic welding posi t ioners come in many styles as required by different weld- ing applications. Properly designed and implemented positioners have a number of common characteristics. They must be able to suppor t and present the par t in an orientation for optimal welding. They must suppor t all requi red tool ing and process control functions including I/O and weld current isolation. Finally, the posi t ioner must have features and capa- bilities that can be used in the robotic cell control and safety architecture. The user who considers these items when design- ing a system for a specific welding appli- cat ion will be well on the way to a suc- cessful project implementation. •


T r = W r = T m R

Fig. 5 - - Method to calculate headstock output torque.

~ : : ÷ : ' f

Jr = Ji = JI/R2

Inertia Ratio = JJJm ,/

Fig. 6 - - Calculation for determining total inertia.

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The ,-,v./S Sho~ r celebrated fifty/ears of service to 112iclustry by showc ~s~ng the late st we ng technology BY A N D R E W CULLISON AND MARY RUTH JOHNSEN

.4,'VDREII'CULIJSO.V (cullisomi~ a~s.org) is Editor and 3L4RY RUTff JOttNSEN (mjohnsent- a~s.org) is Senior Edimr of thc \~L'lding Journ~

JULY 2003

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The crowd awaited the symbolic ribbon cutting that officially opened the 2003 A WS Welding Show.

The Annual Business Meeting of the American Welding Society opened with a

moving rendition of "The Star Spangled Banner' by Ethel Levert, sister of outgoing President Ernest Levert. The gathering was officially welcomed to Detroit by Kenneth

Hollawell, a representative from the mayor's office.

In his address to the attendees as president-elect, Tom Mustaleski emphasized the

strength of the Society comes from the dedication of its volunteers. "Since its found-

ing, volunteers have been at the center of the Society," he said, "working for the cause

and not the pay. We are blessed with outstanding people who have given freely of

their time and expertise." That wealth of knowledge and spirit of sharing among volunteers can be the justi-

fication to employers for participation in the AWS. Mustaleski told of a time when his

employer asked why his continuation in AWS should be supported. He related a story

about a weld cracking problem he was asked to solve. It was a problem he was unfa-

miliar with but from his AWS committee participation he knew people who had ex-

pertise with this particular cracking. Through a series of contacts, he was able to find

a solution to the problem almost immediately. Without exposure to those experts, he

would have spent extensive time solving the problem at the expense of the employer.

During his presidency, Mustaleski has made the commitment to attract new

volunteers and retain those already serving. He will do this by improving time

management of volunteers and putting in place support programs for them.

He proposed to initiate programs that improve communication among

Sections, Districts, and Committees and to enhance recognition of those


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who give their time and energy. He also wants to improve ways that help local vol- unteers attract new members.

In closing, he challenged us all to get involved. "The greatest benefit any of us receive from the American Welding Soci- ety is the opportunity to know and learn from each other," he said. "It can' t hap- pen if you don't get involved."

Fig. 1 - - President Ernest Levert (right) presents a plaque of recognition to Dr. AIdra Matsunawa honoring him for the Adams Lecture.

Comfort A. Adams Lecture

Dr. Akira Matsunawa (Fig. 1), profes- sor emeritus, Osaka University, Japan, presented the Comfort A. Adams Lecture on "The Physics of Laser Welding." Mat- sunawa began his presentation by noting his selection as the Adams speaker had a special meaning to him. He told how, after reading the Adams Lecture in the 1959 Welding Journal, a presentat ion by C. E. Jackson of Ohio State University, t i t led "The Science of Arc Welding," he was in- spired to enter the study of welding phe- nomena. Since then, he has dedicated his life to that study.

He feels the laser is a twentieth cen- tury invention destined to affect the world on the same magnitude as the invention of the semiconductor. The laser is an ar- tificial light that does not appear in na- ture, and it has the highest power density of any invention. Yet, he noted, there are still many misconceptions about the laser, primarily because it is a sum of many com- plex phenomena occurring simultane- ously. The primary misconceptions center around the beam-plasma interactions and keyhole behavior. One misconception is the incident beam is blocked and reflected by a high-pressure, h igh- temperature plasma oscillation. There is now a new concept that states the incident beam can penet ra te the plasma. The two kinds of plasma, metallic and shielding gas, must be controlled to enhance melting.

m~[,-! JULY 2003

Observation of keyhole formation and pool dynamics by X-ray showed the key- hole fluctuating under constant power and bubbles ejected from its bot tom became porosity. It was found turbulence from keyhole formation entrapped helium from the shielding gas in the molten pool. Tests using a modula ted pulsed laser reduced porosity formation.

In his final statements, Matsunawa em- phasized much study is still needed to fully understand the full potential of the laser. "Our present understanding of the laser welding phenomena is only half of what we should expect," he noted.

Plummer Lecture In keeping with the Show's location in

the heart of the U.S. auto industry, the topic of this year's Plummer Memorial Ed- ucation Lecture was "Automotive Train- ing." Glen Knight, administrator, Weld- ing Training, DaimlerChrysler, presented an overview of how the auto industry trains its workers as il lustrated through Daim- lerChrysler 's program. His group, which is located on the 60-acre campus of the DaimlerChrysler Tech Center, provides training for more than 70,000 workers at 34 manufacturing locations. It is also in- volved with the United Auto Workers/ DaimlerChrysler Technical Training Cen- ter, a new joint venture with the union that operates much like a junior college.

The company's Advanced Technical Training Depar tment has provided in- plant training of workers for 30 years. One of its primary functions is to support new vehicle launches by training the workers who will build those products. "The [de- partment's] staff bridges the gap between what the engineers want and what the workers need to know," Knight said. "Many of the courses offered are custom- made for a specific application."

The depar tment offers hundreds of courses. For example, there are 13 classes on robots and programmable controllers, 52 on manufacturing systems, 125 prod- uct-related courses, 26 resistance welding and 21 arc welding courses, as well as classes on laser welding, ultrasonic inspec- tion, destructive testing, and other topics. The classes consist of approximately 20% classroom work and 80% hands-on.

Product Highlights A total of 396 exhibiting companies

brought their best and brightest products to the Show. It was a tantalizing entice- ment for those searching for bet ter and more efficient ways to cut and weld. Un- fortunately, it was impossible for the Weld- ing Journal editors to sample each and every one of them, but below are a few

products that drew our attention. PerformArc 122S. During the AWS

Welding Show, Panasonic Factory Au- tomation showcased the high weld speed it has been able to achieve for aluminum GMAW with its PerformArc 122S robotic arc welding system. The company reports achieving 5 m/min ( -200 in./min) in 2-mm- thick lap joints and 3 m/min for fillet welds. Demonstrations at the Welding Show were set at 160 in./min. The company credits this accomplishment in large part to integrated digital communications between the robot, welding power source, and servo-driven wire feeder. Panasonic builds each compo- nent of the welding cell, which comes fully assembled and can be put into place with a forklift. The robotic cell features an Un- derwriters Laboratories-approved six-axis arc welding robot; fully integrated con- troller; 350-A inverter power supply; servo- controlled, high-speed turntable with two headstock/tailstock positioners; integrated operator control station, and safety enclo- sure. Cost of the unit is approximately $100,000. Panasonic Factory Automation Co., Elgin, Ill., (888) 726-9353, www.pana- sonicfa.com.

MG3 series. Unitek Miyachi offered its MG3 series of compact, color, digital weld monitors (Fig. 2), which are designed to measure and monitor current, voltage, and displacement during the resistance weld- ing process. The full-color screen can be set up in four quadrants, which permits si- multaneous display of numerical and/or waveform information for current and volt- age from two welding machines. It also in- cludes a zoom function that can expand any quadrant and fill the entire screen with one parameter, if desired. The series includes three models. The basic model provides two channels of current and voltage. The next model includes an additional channel of displacement monitoring, and the third model features two channels of current and voltage and two channels of displacement monitoring. Depending on the model cho- sen and the sensors required, the monitors

Fig. 2 - - This series of compact, color, digi- tal weld monitors can be used to help set up the welding machine and weld process, troubleshoot problems, and validate the welding process.

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list between $8000 and $11,000. The units feature built-in statistical process control capabilities, including histograms and run charts. Unitek Miyachi, Monrovia, Calif., (626) 303-5676, www.unitekmiyachi.com.

Pipe Dissector. Matt Kniep, the pipefit- ter/welder who created this tool, said he in- vented the Pipe Dissector (Fig. 3) out of necessity because he needed a better method for laying out pipe. He and the other welders at the fab shop he runs use the stainless steel tool daily. With the tool, end marks can be made with four quick mo- tions instead of eight hammer strikes. The user then hooks the tool on the end of the pipe to ensure parallel layout lines from the end marks. It can be used to quickly and ac- curately find the center on both contoured and flat surfaces and, with the use of two hole pins, can be used to dial in the flange fit. It features a built-in level and magnets on one edge for hands-free use. Starr Prod- ucts, Inc., Bellingham, Wash., (888) 378- 2777, www.starrproducts.com.

Fig. 3 - - The Pipe Dissector tool helps welders make pipe layout marks quickly and accurately.

Manual Trepanning Head (MTH). Laser Mechanisms' manual t repanning head (Fig. 4) is designed for applications requiring either welding or cutting of ring- shaped patterns. Use of this accessory, es- sentially an orbital weld head for lasers, means only a small amount of mass must be moved to achieve circular welding or cutting because the head moves rather than the workpiece. While the MTH was primarily designed for applications requir- ing infrequent diameter changes, the cir- cle diameter can be changed with simple tools. The diameter range is from 0.04 to 2.5 in. The two-mirror laser accessory can be fitted with a gas jet manifold and fo- cusing lens for laser beam cutting. The MTH can be fitted with a parabolic head for high-power laser welding applications. The head, which can be used with either CO 2 or Nd:YAG lasers, costs approxi- mately $15,000 to $20,000. Laser Mecha- nisms, Inc., Farmington Hills, Mich., (248) 474-9480, www.lasermech.com.

Fig. 4 - - Laser Mechanisms' manual trepanning head derivers the laser beam in a circular pattern, making it useful for ring- shaped welding or cutting applications.

NorZon Plus T,. This latest edition of a long line of NorZon products was de- signed to generate a fast cut rate as well as long life. These depressed-center abra- sive wheels combine NorZon® zirconia oxide with Norton SG® ceramic alumina seeded-gel abrasives and a premium bond. According to the company, this produces a wheel that removes metal faster, lasts longer, and generates a better finish. The wheels are available in 4~- through 9-in. diameters and ¼-in. thickness with either X-in. or %-11 centers. Norton Co., Saint- Gobain Abrasives, Inc., Worcester, Mass., (800) 446-1119, www.nortonabrasives.com.

Tubemaster 514. When Magnatech was developing the Tubemaster Model 514 (Fig. 5), the company's goal was to cut the price from that of its previous system by 50%, reduce the size, and to offer more features in terms of software and capabil- ities. The size of this new programmable power source for orbital weld heads has been reduced to 19 in. long x 11 in. wide x 12.75 in. high and it weighs 54 lb. The sug- gested retail price of the power source alone is $9,995; with a water cooler and orbital weld head, the price is $20,000. The system was designed to work with most welding heads for both autogenous welds and welds made with a welding wire. Pro- gramming can be accomplished by man- ual entry or by using the Autoprogram- mint feature, which automatically gener- ates weld procedures. The unit can store 100 weld programs internally, with up to 100 levels per program. Other features in- clude 200-A output; programmable over- ride limits to provide supervisory control; weld parameter monitoring; and out-of- limits reporting. Magnatech Limited Part- nership, East Granby, Conn., (860) 653- 2573, www.magnatech-lp.com.

Fig. 5 - - The Tubemaster Model 514 pro- grammable power source was designed to work with most types of orbital weld heads for both autogenous welds and those re- quiring filler metal.

PRO-WAVE® 185TSW. This machine is the cornerstone of Thermal Arc's new line of portable shielded metal arc, gas tung- sten arc, gas metal arc, and multiprocess inverter arc welding power supplies geared for construction and maintenance jobs. The PRO-WAVE 185TSW (Fig. 6) weighs 41.8 lb. It generates a square-wave AC/DC output with a range from 5 to 185 A. It can handle most GTAW jobs, and precise wave shaping allows the welder to control cleaning, penetration, and heat input for aluminum applications. Standard features include up-slope/downslope control and pulse, variable frequency, wave balance control, and lift or high-frequency assisted starting. It also features the company's new voltage regulation device, which re- duces the open circuit voltage when the power supply is not in use to help elimi- nate the chance of accidental electric shock. The welding machine comes with a GTAW torch, ground clamp, flowmeter, and foot pedal. The list price is $2100. Thermal Arc, Inc., a Thermadyne company, St. Louis, Mo., (636) 728-3000, www. thermalarc.com.

Fig. 6 - - The Pro-WA VE 185TSWis a mul- tiprocess portable power source geared for construction and maintenance jobs.


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SuitCase TM 8RC/12RC. Welders do not need to return to the power source to ad- just voltage levels on these suitcase-style wire feeders - - Fig. 7. They feature re- mote voltage control for gas metal arc, pulsed gas metal arc, and flux cored arc welding. This feature and their small size work well for sites where maneuverability is a problem. The 8RC takes an 8-in. spool of wire and weighs 22 lb; Model 12RC uses a 12-in. spool and weighs 25.5 lb. The feed- ers feature an inject ion-molded, crush- proof, f lame-retardant case that protects internal components from dirt, moisture, and contaminants. Large-sized compo- nents allow adjustment of wire tension and handling of other parts without the need for welders to remove their gloves. A ther- mostat inside each feeder monitors oper- ating temperature and shuts the unit down to avoid damage if too high a temperature is reached. Two drive rolls ra ther than a drive roll plus an idler roll ensure smooth wire feed. Wire feed speed can be adjusted between 75 and 700 in./min while feeding wires from 0.023 to 7~, in. in diameter. Op- tions include a trigger-hold/digital meter that allows operators to relax their index fingers during the weld cycle. The list price for Model 12RC is $1680. Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis., (800) 426-4553, www.MillerWelds.com.

Fig. 7 - - Miller's 8RC and 12RC wire feed- ers feature remote voltage control and a rugged suitcase-style case.

Strong Hand Utility Clamp. Four mod- els of the company's modular utility clamp (Fig. 8) are available: 4.5, 6.5, and 8.5 in., and a 4.5-in. "J" style clamp for stepping over I beams and other items with tall lips. The 8.5-in. model exerts 2660 lb of clamp- ing pressure, the others 600 lb. List price of the 8.5-in. model is $56.18. A variety of accessories let users customize the clamps for specific applications. Channel brack-

ets help turn the clamp into a vise, the V-pad attachment allows it to be used on round stock, the "Sidekick" at tachment allows users to clamp items either hori- zontally or vertically. Accessories are added using the threaded hole on the bot- tom jaw. Valtra, Inc., Pico Rivera, Calif., (800) 989-5244, www.valtrainc.com.

Fig. 8 - - A variety of accessories customize Valtra, Inc. ' s, Strong Hand utility clamps for use on a wide range of applications.

Monograph Millennium. A major pri- ority of Jerry Leahy, president, Koike Aronson, is to promote the company as a total source for welding, cutting, and posi- tioning for the small fab shop to the large corporat ion. The introduction of the Monograph Millenium (Fig. 9) is a step in that direction. This plasma cutting ma- chine offers the latest in control technol- ogy in an affordable package for small op- erations. It features a ~-in. maximum cutting capacity with a 5- x 10-ft effective cutting area. Rack and pinion drive system maintains traverse speeds up to 1400 in./min. Arc voltage feedback posit ion control and initial height sensing are stan- dard features. The control system features Microsoft Windows ®, a graphics inter- face, color panel display, 10-GB hard drive, and CNC profiler. This product fits Leahy's philosophy of "take out unneces- sary costs and add value through people and processes." Koike Aronson Inc., Arcade, N.Y., (585) 492-2400, www.koike.com.

Fig. 9 - - To make plasma cutting afford- able for small operations, Koike Aronson introduced the Monograph Millennium.

Nextweld T,. Welding operations can be integrated through a 100% digital net- work with Nextweld TM technology. Multi- ple welding stations can be tied together by Ethernet and a central monitor (Fig. 10) can show live as well as historical data. The system utilizes digital communica- tion, which transmits a large amount of data to components accurately and at high speed. By monitoring parameters, weld performance at each station can be opti- mized. The network integrates Lincoln's Waveform Control with power electronics to provide the ability to adjust arc charac- teristics to the specific job and to use power at high densities but with efficiency. The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio, (216) 481-8100, www.lincolnelectric.com.

Fig. 10 - - Nextweld TM from Lincoln offers arc control, efficient power consumption, and reliable data transfer across a network of welding stations.

INV-PED. This new pedestal resistance welding machine (Fig. 11) was getting a lot of attention because of its affordability (under $8000) and features. Its steel frame doesn't visibly deflect through a weld force range of 250 to 1500 lb. It has a weld head stroke of 1 to 3 in., a throat depth of 6 to 8 in., and a secondary current up to 13,500 A. It claims precise and smooth movement throughout the welding cycle. It can han- dle spot, projection, and seam welding, and it is configured to require minimal floor space for a pedestal welding ma- chine. The Taylor-Winfield Corp., Brook- field, Ohio, (330) 448-4464, www.taylor- winfield.com.

Fig. 11 - - The INl/: PED pedestal resistance welding machine was getting a lot of atten- tion at the Show.

E! ' - l l JULY 2003 I

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Motion and Machine Controller. Mul- titasking control of an automated welding system can be performed with the BX2, a 64-bit RISC processor - - Fig. 12. It offers the advantage of a single processor in the welding system controlling all the motion and welding parameters including wire feeding, current and voltage, positioning of the welding head, prepurge and post- purge, and oscillation synchronization. The controller is industrial hardened and has operated effectively in a variety of ap- plications including offshore pipe welding, weld sealing of nuclear waste canisters, automotive tube welding, and laser joint tracking. The compact unit has the capability of 14 digital outputs and 32 in- puts; Windows NT ® interface; expand- able through Ethernet modules; point-to- point, t rapezoidal and s-curve motion; and operation in temperatures from 0 to 40°C. Berkeley Process Control, Inc., Richmond, Calif., (510) 222-8004, www.berkleyprocess.com.

Fig. 12 - - The BX2 processor can control multitasks in an automated welding setup.

Variable Angle Clamps. The introduc- tion of a unique clamping system for hold- ing parts at various angles (Fig. 13) gener- ated a lot of interest. The clamps can hold fiats or rounds at multiple angles through an ingenious ratcheting mechanism. Both models CI-100 and C2-200 are made of lightweight aluminum with an anodized finish. The CI-100 has an opening up to 0.875 in., is 6.5 in. long, and costs $129. The C2-200 is 14 in. long with a 2-in. open- ing and has a price tag of $189. Heck In- dustries, Inc., Hartland, Mich., www.heckind.net.

Fig. 1 3 - - This lightweight aluminum clamp holds parts in place at a variety of angles.

Heat Treating. For on-site heat treat- ing, the 75 KVA power source has the flex- ibility to be used manually, remotely, or by program. The unit has six-channel capa- bility and one or all can be run by its auto- programmer ei ther locally or remotely. Data acquisition and supervisory control are built-in. Made of heavy-gauge sheet steel, the unit is ready for industrial use. It is encased in a wheeled cabinet to provide mobility. The power source has capacity for 18 heaters, 80 V at 3.6 kW, or 24 heaters, 60 V at 2.7 kW It has two 110-V auxiliary outlets and six dual panel mounted thermocouple jacks. Manning USA, Dover, N.J., (800) 447-4473, www. ma nningusa, com.

l teatShiekt One way to stay cool in a hot job is to try a vest that contains a syn- thetic cooling medium. Place the vest into a freezer overnight, put it on for work, and the claim is it will provide body cooling for up to 3~ hours. It also has a design that channels condensed moisture out of the vest for added cooling potential. The vest can be refrozen multiple times and retain its effectiveness. The HeatShield vest weighs 4 lb and costs $199.95. ClimaTech Safety, Inc., White Stone, Va., (800)266- 5440, www.climatechsafety.com.

Coreshield 6. Developed to meet FEMA 353 specification for use in earth- quake-prone areas, Coreshield 6 is an E70T-6 self-shielded flux cored wire (Fig. 14) for flat and horizontal position weld- ing. This new welding wire is designed to have low spatter, low fume levels, and sta- ble arc characteristics. It is classified under the AWS A5.20 specification, and it is a good selection for outdoor bridge and construction welding. It comes in a vari- ety of diameters. ESAB Welding and Cut- ting Products, Hanover, Pa., (717) 637- 8911, www.esabna.com.

Fig. 14 - - Self-shielded flux cored Core- shield 6 meets specifications for welds on structures in earthquake regions.

TrueFit. Need an industrial glove that fits snugly but is comfortable? Tillman in- troduced one at the Show, and it was get- ting attention. Although not meant to be worn for welding, the TrueFit glove af- fords good protection for many jobs. The gripping part of the glove is constructed of either goatskin, cowhide, or deerskin, with extra reinforcement in the thumb and palm areas. A flexible Spandex® material is on the back, and an elastic cuff is tight- ened by a hook-and-loop closure. The deerskin, cowhide, and goatskin models are reasonably priced at $10.95, $8.95, and $7.50, respectively. Tillman, Compton, Calif., (800) 255-5480, www.jtillman.com

Head-Turners. American patr iot ic hard hats have been popular since they came on the market a few years ago, but the concept is now going international with the introduction of the Mexican flag model - - Fig. 15. It is made of a durable material that withstands temperature fluc- tuations, humidity, and UV light. It is fully dielectric, has a replaceable sweatband, and the suspension is adjustable for a va- riety of head sizes. Jackson Products, Inc., Belmont, Mich. (800) 253-7281, www.jack- sonproducts, com.

Fig. 15 - - Patriotic pride goes international with the introduction of a Mexican flag hard hat, flanked here by two popular American- pride hard hats.

What's Ahead for the Welding Show

The AWS Welding Show will return to Chicago's McCormick Place Apri l 6-8, 2004. There, showgoers will once again get the opportunity to view new develop- ments in welding equipment and acces- sories, learn the latest information re- searchers have discovered, and mix with their peers from throughout industry.O

WELDING S H O W 2 0 0 4


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American Welding Society

Friends and Colleagues:

We're into the eleventh year of the program, and 99 individuals have now entered into the fraternity of Fellows. Again, I encourage you to submit nomination packages for those in- dividuals whom you feel have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases, the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and who would normally nom- inate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious individ- ual was available to start the nomination process.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve, at AWS headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellows nomination form in this issue of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is February 1, 2004. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2005 consideration.


Dr. Alexander Lesnewich Chairman, AWS Fellows Selection Committee

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(please type or print in black ink)























**MOST IMPORTANT** The Fellows Committee selection criteria are strongly based on and extracted from the categories identified below. All infor-

mation and support material provided by the candidate's Fellow Proposer, Nominating Members and peers is considered. Provide as much detailed information as possible regarding:

The candidate's accomplishments under areas identified below (use separate sheet for each category): A. Research & Development B. Education C. Manufacturing D. Design and Inventions E. Other (e.g., Standards Development, National and International Liaison) Evidence of accomplishment should include sustained service and performance in the promotion of joining technology; pub-

lication of papers, articles and books; innovative development of joining technology; service to AWS and other technical societies; and list and description of patents, awards and honors.

SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER AWS Member No. The Proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. Signatures on this nominating form, or supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the Proposer. Signatures may be acquired by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should be submitted.






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American Welding Society

Fellow Description

DEFINITION AND HISTORY The American Welding Society, in 1990, established the honor of Fellow of the Society to recognize members for dis-

tinguished contributions to the field of welding science and technology, and for promoting and sustaining the professional stature of the field. Election as a Fellow of the Society is based on the outstanding accomplishments and technical impact of the individual. Such accomplishments wil l have advanced the science, technology and application of welding, as evidenced by:

Sustained service and performance in the advancement of welding science and technology Publication of papers, articles and books which enhance knowledge of welding Innovative development of welding technology Society and chapter contributions Professional recognition

RULES 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.


Candidates shall have 10 years of membership in AWS Candidates shall be nominated by any five members of the Society Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS Headquarters Nominations must be submitted to AWS Headquarters no later than February I of the year prior to that in which the award is to be presented Nominations will remain valid for three years All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence No more than two posthumous Fellows may be elected each year

OF FELLOWS Maximum of 10 Fellows selected each year, as determined by the selection committee.

AWS Fellow Application Guidelines

Nomination packages for AWS Fellow should clearly demonstrate the candidates outstanding contributions to the ad- vancement of welding science and technology. In order for the Fellows Selection Committee to fairly assess the candidates qualifications, the nomination package must list and clearly describe the candidates specific technical accomplishments, how they contributed to the advancement of welding technology, and that these contributions were sustained. Essential in demonstrating the candidates impact are the following (in approximate order of importance).

1. Description of significant technical advancements. This should be a brief summary of the candidates most significant contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology.

2. Publications of books, papers, articles or other significant scholarly works that demonstrate the contributions cited in (1). Where possible, papers and articles should be designated as to whether they were published in peer-reviewed journals.

3. Inventions and patents. 4. Professional recognition including awards and honors from AWS and other professional societies. 5. Meaningful participation in technical committees. Indicate the number of years served on these committees and

any leadership roles (chair, vice-chair, subcommittee responsibilities, etc.). 6. Contributions to handbooks and standards. 7. Presentations made at technical conferences and section meetings. 8. Consultancy - - particularly as it impacts technology advancement. 9. Leadership at the technical society or corporate level, particularly as it impacts advancement of welding technology. 10. Participation on organizing committees for technical programming. 11. Advocacy - - support of the society and its technical advancement through institutional, political or other means.

Note: Application packages that do not support the candidate using the metrics listed above will have a very low probability of success.

Supporting Letters Letters of support from individuals knowledgeable of the candidate and his/her contributions are encouraged. These

letters should address the metrics listed above and provide personal insight into the contributions and stature of the candidate. Letters of support that simply endorse the candidate will have little impact on the selection process.

Retvrn completed Fellow nomination package to:

Wendy S. Reeve American Welding Society 550 N.W.L~eune Road Miami, FL 33126

Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 215


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NJC Demonstrates Adaptive Mechanized Welding System at Shipyard

The Navy Joining Center (NJC) and Edison Welding Institute (EWI) have de- veloped a system for real-time adaptive fill of multipass groove welds in U.S. Navy ship structures. The system was recently demonstrated at the General Dynamics Electric Boat Facility in Groton, Conn. The system includes a portable welding tractor, laser vision system, and gas metal arc welding equipment. This activity was in response to the Navy's need to reduce the construction cost of ships and sub- marines through the increased use of au- tomated welding.

While current applications typically re- quire the continuous supervision of an op- erator for welding parameter and welding gun position adjustment, the emphasis of this project was to give the welding sys- tem more intelligence so that it can func- tion autonomously. This would free the operator to perform other duties, includ- ing the operation of multiple systems.

Since the system is based on commer- cially available equipment, the transition to the production floor only required upgrad- ing software, minor hardware changes to the existing equipment, and a single day of operator training. A successful demonstra- tion of the system was conducted by a pro-

duction welder at Electric Boat. The demonstration verified that the mechanized adaptive welding system performed as in- tended and the system is now slated to be demonstrated at a second shipyard and for transition into production.

For further details, please contact Doug Ketron, Arc Welding and Material Automation Group, Edison Welding In- stitute, (614) 688-5150 or via e-mail at doug_ketron @ewi. org. *

Navy Joining Center Fellowships Awarded at AWS Welding Show 2003

Two Navy Joining Center (NJC) graduate fellowships for the 2003-2004 academic year were announced at the AWS Welding Show 2003 in Detroit. Each year, the Navy Joining Center supports two graduate fellowships as part of its commitment to further technical education and the advancement of materials joining technology. These fellow- ships are awarded through the American Welding Society Foundation and support grad- uate students whose research addresses materials joining topics of interest to the U.S. Navy.

The NJC Fellowships for the upcoming academic year have been awarded to Matthew J. Perricone of Lehigh University and Raymundo Arroyave of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Perricone has been a previous recipient of an NJC fellowship and is pur- suing both master's and doctorate degrees in material science and engineering with studies in '~. Fundamental Study of the Rapid Solidification Behavior of Super-Austenitic Stainless Steels in Laser Welds for Advanced Naval Applications." Arroyave is also a past recipient of an NJC fellowship and is pursuing a doctorate degree in materials sci- ence and engineering with studies in "Thermochemical and Kinetic Phenomena at Ce- ramic-Metal Interfaces, Application to the Zirconia/Cu-based Active Braze System."

Please contact the American Welding Society Foundation at (800) 443-9353 ext. 689 for more information on NJC Fellowships.

Mark Your Calendar What: Navy Joining Center Materials

Joining Technology Review and Open House

When: September 23 Where: The Navy Joining Center

at Edison Welding Institute 1250 Arthur E. Adams Dr. Columbus, Ohio

Don ' t miss it! Space is limited, so register today. To register, call Debra Knight at (614) 688-5170.

I 'I .JC Operated by


The Navy Joining Center 1250 Arthur E. Adams Dr. Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 688-5010 FAX: (614) 688-5001 e-mail: [emailprotected] www: http://ww~.ew~org Contact: Larry Brown

B.,'~IB JULY 2003 I

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The AWS Foundation has several other programs available.


-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (58)


Conferences and Exhibitions

13th Annual EPRI NDE Issues Meeting. July 23-25, Wild Dunes Resort, Isle of Palms, S.C. Contacts: Sue Glenn, (704) 547-6078, e-mail: [emailprotected] or Chris Laundon, (704) 547-6194, e-mail: [emailprotected]. For more information, visit www.epri.com and click on "Events."

Welding Korea 2003. August 27-30, Indian Hall, COEX, Seoul, Korea. Organized by the Korea Welding Industry Cooperative and COEX. Contact: Welding Korea 2003 Secretariat, COEX World Trade Center, Samsung-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135- 731, Korea, (02) 6000-1055, 1056, FAX: (02) 6000-1309, e-mail: kbc @coex. co.kr or donhan @coex. co. kr; www. weldingshow, co. kr.

• 4th Conference on Weld Cracking Causes and Cures. September 9-10, New Orleans, La. Sponsored by the American Welding Society. Contact: AWS Conferences, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126, (800) 443-9353 ext. 449 or, outside the U.S., (305) 443-9353 ext. 449, FAX: (305) 443-1552; www. a ws. org.

2003 ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and ASM Heat Treat Show. September 15-18, Indianapolis, Ind. Contact: ASM Customer Service, (440) 338-5151 ext. 6, FAX: (440) 338-4634; e-mail: [emailprotected];www.asminternational.org.

R e a d y W e l d e r f l T h e U l t i m a t e S p o o l g u n

2003 International Construction and Utility Equipment Exposition (ICUEE). September 23-25, Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Ky. Owned and produced by the Association of Equipment Manufacturers. Contact: ICUEE, (866) 236-0442, FAX: (414) 272-1170, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.icuee.com.

7th International Seminar on the Numerical Analysis of Weldability. September 29-October 1, Schloss Seggau, Austria. Organized by IIW Subcommission IXB Working Group "Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena" and Graz University of Technology, Institute for Materials Science, Welding, and Forming. Contact: Ernest Kozeschnik, 43 (316) 873-4304, FAX: 43 (316) 873-7187, e-mail: ernst.kozeschnik @iws.tugraz.at; http://iws.tugraz.at/seggau.html.

Aluminum USA 2003, The North American Event for Production, Processing, and Applications. September 30-October 2, Navy Pier, Chicago, Ill. For registration and complimentary tickets, e- mail: [emailprotected]. For conference details, con- tact: Group Managing Editor Ken Stanford, 44 (0) 1737 855156, FAX: 44 (0) 1737 855469, e-mail: [emailprotected] alia.corn; www.aluminumtoday.com.

• Welding in the Oil and Gas Industries. October 7-8, Hilton Garden Inn Houston, Houston, Tex. Sponsored by the American Welding Society. Contact: AWS Conferences, 550 NW LeJeune

F e a t u r e s : • Connects To

Output Welder • Connects to E

24VDC over 2 36VDC over3, c

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• Two Year Limited Warranty

Welds up to 3 / 4 " Aluminum, Steel and Stainless

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Model 10250

(800) WELD-MIG

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Circle No. 25 on Reader Info-Card

m;~.lg JULY 2003 I I

Circle No. 17 on Reader Info-Card

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Rd., Miami, FL 33126, (800) 443-9353 ext. 449 or, outside the U.S., (305) 443-9353 ext. 449, FAX: (305) 443-1552; WWW. aws. org.

ASM International's Materials Solutions Conference and Exposition. October 13-16, Pittsburgh, Pa. Contact: ASM Customer Service, (440) 338-5151 ext. 6, FAX: (440) 338-4634, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.asminternational.org/ materialssolutions.

Friction Stir Welding Technology for Defense Applications. October 14-15, Living/Learning Center, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstown, Pa. Hosted by Concurrent Technologies Corp. (CTC) and the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); organized by NCEMT and Navy Joining Center; and sponsored by the Navy Manufacturing Technology Program, Office of Naval Research. Contact: Tricia Wright, NCEMT, (814) 269-2567, e-mail: [emailprotected].

7th Welding Week 2003. Benelux Exhibition on Welding, Joining, and Cutting. October 14-17, Bouwcentrum, Antwerp, Belgium. Supported by the Belgian Welding Institute, Netherlands Welding Institute, and European Federation for Welding, Joining, and Cutting. Contact: Steven Duytschaever, Project Coordinator, 32 3-354-08-80, FAX: 32 3-354-08-10, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.weldingweek.be.

China International Metals Industry Fair m MetalsFair. November 6-9, Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Centre, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Sponsored by the China Iron and Steel Association, the China Non-Ferrous Industry Association, and the Metallurgical Council of CCIT. Running simultaneously to MetalsFair will be the International Forum on Steel Market and Trade 2003, the International Forum on Non-Ferrous Market and Trade 2003, the International Conference on Metal Production and Processing Technology 2003, and the International Ferroalloy and Refractory Industry Expo. Contact: Zhang Lingyun, Metallurgical Council of CCPIT, 86-10-65131905, FAX: 86-10- 65248384, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.metalsfair.com.

• Weldex 2003. November 11-14, National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham, U.K. Weldex 2003 will run concurrently with the Manufacturing Week, INSPEX, Tooling, DES, DMC, and CIM exhibitions. Sponsored by the American Welding Society, Association of Welding Distributors, and the European Welding Federation. Contact: Karin Allfree or Isobel Roberts, 44 1322 660070, FAX: 44 1322 616350; www.weldexpo.com/modules/ serve, cgi.

14th IAS Stee lmaking Conference and the Ironmaking Conference. Hotel Colonial, San Nicolas, Argentina. Contact: Cristian Genzano, Institutional Services, Instituto Argentino de Siderurgia, Av. Central y Calle 19 Oeste, 2900 San Nicolas, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 54 3461 460803, FAX: 54 3461 40803, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www. siderurgia.org.ar/ semiaceria/anuncio-eng.htm.

Current Problems in Welding and Life of Structures. November 24-26, Kiev, Ukraine. Sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, the Interstate Scientific Council on Welding and Related Technologies, International Association of Welding. Contact: Organizing Committee, 11, Bozhenko str., Kiev, 03680, Ukraine, 380-44 227-67-57, FAX: 380-44 268-04-86; e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.nas.gov.ua/pwj.

Educational Opportunities Lincoln Electric Welding Design Seminars. Blodgett's Design of Welded Structures, September 16-18; Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures, October 28-30; and Blodgett's Design of Welded Structures, November 11-13. Seminars are led by Lincoln Electric Senior Design Consultant Omer W. Blodgett and Duane K. Miller and conducted by an additional team of experts. Each seminar has an equivalent value of 2.0 CEUs and the tuition for each is $595. To register or for futher information, contact The Lincoln Electric Comany, attn: Registrar, Professional Programs, 22801 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44117-1199, (216) 383-2240, FAX: (216) 383-8025, Web site: www.lincolnelectric.com/knowl- edge/training~seminars~professional.asp.

Fundamentals of Corrosion and Its Control. July 16-19, LaQue Center for Corrosion Technology, Wrightsville Beach, N.C. LaQue Center for Corrosion Technology Inc., 702 Causeway Dr., P.O. Box 656, Wrightsville Beach, NC 28480, (910) 256- 2271, FAX: (910) 256-9816, e-maih [emailprotected]; www.laque.com.

Pipeline Process Solutions. September 30-October 2, The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. This seminar covers the latest pipeline welding technologies and consumables. Contact: (216) 383-4718; www.lincolnelectric.com.

EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills training in Visual Examination, Ultrasonic Examination, ASME Section XI, UT Operator Training, and more. For spe- cific information, contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 547-6174, e-mail: sstogner @epri.com.

Victor 2003 Training Seminars. Victor Equipment Co. will be conducting training programs for gas apparatus and service repair technicians, end users, and sales personnel in 2003. For a complete schedule, contact: Aaron Flippen, (940) 381-1217; www. victorequip.com.

The Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International (FMA), and the Tube and Pipe Association, International (TPA) Courses. A course schedule is available by calling (815) 399- 8775; e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.finametalfab.org.

Malcom Plastic Welding School. A comprehensive two-day, hands- on course that leads to certification in accordance with the latest European DVS-approved plastic welding standards for hot gas and extrusion welding techniques. Contact: Sheila Carpenter, Administration, Malcom Hot Air Systems, 1676 E. Main Rd., Portsmouth, RI 02871, (888) 807-4030, FAX: (401) 682-1904, e- mail: [emailprotected]; www.plasticweldingtools.com.

Hellier NDT Courses. A course schedule is available from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357, (860) 739- 8950, FAX: (860) 739-6732.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding of 2-In. Pipe in the 6G Position m Uphill. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, Troy, Ohio. This course is designed to develop welding skills necessary to produce quality multipass welds on 2-in.-diameter, schedule 160 mild steel pipe (0.436-in. wall thickness) in the 6G position using E6010 and E7018 electrodes. For further information, contact: Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, 400 Trade Square East, Troy, OH 45373, (800) 332-9448, FAX: (937) 332-5200; www. welding, org.

2003 Motor Sports Welding School. Classes are scheduled at


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Lincoln Electric headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio. For more information and a complete schedule, contact: Lincoln Electric Motor Sports Welding School, 22801 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44117, (216) 383-2461, FAX: (216) 383-8088, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.lincolnelectric.com.

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and Seminars. Courses and seminars cover such topics as ASME Code Sections I, IV, V, VIII (Division 1), IX, and B31.1; Writing Welding Procedures; Repairing Pressure Relief Valves; Understanding How Boilers and Pressure Vessels Are Constructed and Inspected; and more. To obtain a 2003 sched- ule of training courses and seminars conducted by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors at its Training and Conference Center in Columbus, Ohio, contact: Richard McGuire, Manager of Training, (614) 888-8320, e-mail: [emailprotected]; www.nationalboard.org.

Welding Skills Training Courses. Courses include weldability of ferrous and nonferrous metals, arc welding inspection and qual- ity control, preparation for recertification of CWIs, and others. For a complete schedule, contact: Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, 400 Trade Square E., Troy, OH 45373, (800) 332- 9448 or, outside the U.S., (937) 332-5000, FAX: (937) 332-5200; www. welding, org.

Structural Welding: Design and Specification Seminars. Conducted by the Steel Structures Technology Center (SSTC). For 2003 schedule and locations, contact: SSTC, (248) 344-2910, FAX: (248) 344-2911; www.steelstructures.corn.

Machine Safeguarding Seminars. Conducted by Rockford Systems, Inc. For schedule and more information, contact: Rockford Systems, P.O. Box 5525, Rockford, IL 61125, (800) 922-7533 or, outside the U.S., (815) 874-7891, FAX: (815) 874- 6144; www.rockfordsystems.com.

ASME International - - Section IX Welding Guide. Course #ZCD996. Introduction and review of Section IX welding infor- mation including welding documentation forms, review of Articles I and IV, sample WPS and review; sample PQR and review; testing and examination requirements for performance qualification; and other issues relating to Section IX. For infor- mation, visit www.asme.org/pro_dev.

A W S I n t e r n a t i o n a l S c h e d u l e --- C W l / C W E P r e p C o u r s e s a n d E x a m s

CWI Training: November 3-7; Examination: November 8 Location: DALUS, S.A., Monterrey, N.L. Contact: Lorena Garza Telephone: 52 (81) 8386 4780 E-mail: [emailprotected]

Educational Opportunit ies

AWS Schedule m CWI/CWE Prep Courses and Exams Exam application must be submitted six weeks before exam date. For exam information and an application, contact the AWS Certification Dept., (800) 443-9353 ext. 273. For exam prep course information, contact the AWS Education Dept., (800) 443-9353 ext. 229.

Cities Exam Prep CWI/CWE Cities Exam Prep CWI/CWE Courses Exams Courses Exams

Memphis, Tenn. August 10-15 August 16 Albuquerque, N.Mex. August 3-8 August 9 (API 1104 Clinic also offered) (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Anchorage, Alaska September 7-12 September 13 Miami, Fla. EXAM ONLY July 17 (API 1104 Clinic also offered) Miami, Fla. EXAM ONLY August 14

Baton Rouge, La. July 13-18 July 19 (API 1104 Clinic also offered) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Charlotte, N.C. August 24-29 August 30 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Miami, Fla. EXAM ONLY September 18 Minneapolis, Minn. September 14-19 September 20

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) Mobile, Ala. EXAM ONLY July 19 New Orleans, La. Columbus, Ohio August 4-8 August 9

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) Dallas, Tex. September 21-26 September 27 Orlando, Fla. July 6-11 July 12

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

September 7-12 September 13 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Philadelphia, Pa. July 6-11 July 12 Houston, Tex. August 17-22 August 23 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) Pittsburgh, Pa. October 19-24 October 25 Houston, T e x . September 15-20

9-YEAR RECERTIFICATION COURSE (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Idaho Falls, Idaho EXAM ONLY July 12 Indianapolis, Ind. August 17-22 August 23

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) Kansas City, Mo. July 27-August 1 August 2

(API 1104 Clinic also offered) Kansas City, Mo. August 4-9


Rochester, N.Y. August 24-29 August 30 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Sacramento, Calif. August 10-15 August 16 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Salt Lake City, Utah July 13-18 July 19 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

San Diego, Calif. September 14-19 September 20 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

Seattle, Wash. July 27-August 1 August 2 (API 1104 Clinic also offered)

m,l:m JULY 2003

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TransAlaska Pipeline Declared an Outstanding D e v e l o p m e n t in Welded Fabrication

Only two weeks after the fourth-largest earthquake in recorded history tested the structural design and the welds of the TransAlaska Pipeline, employees and guests of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company gathered together at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks to celebrate the pipeline's 25th anniversary and its designation by the American Welding Society (AWS) as an Outstanding Development in Welded Fabrication.

"The pipeline's reliability, even when severely tested by a 7.9 earthquake, is a sig- nificant testimony to the outstanding technological advances achieved in welding. It also reaffirms the accomplishments of [those] that welded this Arctic pipeline," said Senior Welding Engineer Alan Beckett while accepting the award.

The plaque, which will be displayed in a visitor's center near the pipeline, was presented by Phil Zammit, AWS District 19 director, and Bruce Weisman, chairman of the AWS Alaska Section, and accepted by Beckett and Lee Monthei, vice presi- dent of engineering and projects, on behalf of Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, the organization responsible for the operation and maintenance of the pipeline.

Construction of the TransAlaska Pipeline was completed in May 1977 and the first of more than 13 billion barrels of oil began to move through the 800 miles of pipeline on June 20, 1977.

TransAlaska Pipeline Quick Facts

• The TransAlaska Pipeline System was designed and constructed to move oil from the North Slope of Alaska to the northernmost ice-free port - - Valdez, Alaska. • Length: 800 miles. • Diameter: 48 inches. • Crosses three mountain ranges and more than 800 rivers and streams. • Cost to build: $8 billion in 1977, largest privately funded construction project at that time. • Construction began on March 27, 1975, and was completed on May 31, 1977. • First oil moved through the pipeline on June 20, 1977. • More than 13 billion barrels have moved through the TransAlaska Pipeline Sys- tem. • First tanker to carry crude oil from Valdez: ARCO Juneau, August 1, 1977. • Tankers loaded at Valdez: 16,781 through March 2001. • Storage tanks in Valdez: 18 with total storage capacity of 9.1 million barrels. • The mission of Alyeska's Ship Escort Response Vessel System is to safely escort tankers through Prince William Sound. • 52 mainline girth welds. • 66,000 manual welds.

Presenting the A WS Outstanding Devel- opment in Welded Fabrication Award to Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Sr. Welding Engineer Alan Beckett, left cen- ter, and Vice President of Engineering and Projects Lee Monthei, right center, are A WS District 19 Director Philip Zammit, left, and Alaska Section Chairman Bruce Weisman.

The Outstanding Development in Welded Fabrication Award

• 42,000 automatic double-joint welds.

The award is part of the AWS Extraor- dinary Welding Awards program, which also includes the AWS Historical Welded Structure Award. The Out- standing Development in Welded Fab- rication Award is presented to struc- tures that symbolize advanced engineer- ing and welding technology. The His- torical Welded Structure Award honors structures at least 35 years old that have had a significant impact on history. Ex- traordinary Welding Awards can be nominated by any AWS member for consideration by the Past Presidents Committee.

To nominate a structure, ship, bridge, or other feat of engineering that has led to advances in welding design and processes, please contact AWS Communications/Public Relations Manager Amy Nathan at the American Welding Society, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126, telephone (800) 443- 9353 ext. 308, outside the U.S. dial (305)


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Errata for AWS Specifications

The following errata items apply to ANSI/AWS A5.16-90, Specification for Tita- nium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods; ANSI/AWS A5.2-92, Specifi- cation for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding; ANSI/AWS A5.24-90, Specification for Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods; ANSI/AWS A5.28-96, Specification for Low Alloy Electrodes for Gas Shielded MetalArc Welding. The table number is followed in parentheses by the Code page number and any other information needed.

Errata for ANSI/AWS A5.2-92, Specification for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding

Table 4 (page 4) - Change the first entry under the fourth column (Mn) to "0.50" in place of "0.05."

Errata for ANSI/AWS A5.16-90, Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods

Table 1 (page 2) - For ERTi-12 under "Oxygen," change "0.25" to "0.12."

Errata for ANSI/AWS A5.24-90, Specification for Zirconium and Zir- conium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods

Table 1 (page 2) - In the seventh column, under "Oxygen," change all three entries from "0.16" to "0.016."

Errata for ANSI/AWS A5.28-96, Specification for Low Alloy Electrodes for Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Table 3 (page 4) - The shielding gas for the ER90S-B9 is incorrectly shown as '~rgon/5% O2;" correct to "Argon5% CO2," which is the gas shown throughout the approval process.

Errata for Welding Journal

The following errata item applies to the article "Welding Stainless Steel Piping with No Backing Gas," by Barry Messer, Greg Lawrence, Vasile Oprea, Charles Patrick, and Terry Phillips in the December 2002 Welding Journal.

Figure 2 (page 33) - The images for Fig. 2A and Fig. 2B have been reversed. Image 'W' shows the weld root pass without backing gas and "B" shows the weld root pass with backing gas.

Table 3 (page 33) - The 364 MPa tensile test value shown for the testing performed without backing gas is incorrect, the correct value should be 560 MPA. •

Technical Committee Meetings All A WS technical committee meetings are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend a meeting should contact the staff secretary of the committee, as listed below, at A WS, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126, telephone (305) 443-9353.

August 5-6, B4 Committee on Mechanical Testing of Welds. Chantilly, Va. Standards preparation meeting. Staff contact: A. Davis, ext. 466.

August 14-15, Technical Activities Committee. Columbus, Ohio. General Meeting. Staff contact: L. Connor, ext. 302. •

Standards Notices Standards for Public Review

A WS was approved as an accredited stan- dards-preparing organization by the Ameri- can National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved by ANSI, re- quire all standards be open to public review for comment during the approval process. This column also advises of ANSI approval of documents. The foUowing standards are submitted for public review. A draft copy may be obtained by contacting Rosalinda O'Neill at AWS, Technical Services Business Unit, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FI 33126; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 451, e-mail: [emailprotected].

C5.10/C5.10M:200X, Recommended Practices for Shielding Gases for Welding and Cutting. Revised standard. $17.50. [ANSI Public Review Expires July 22, 2003.]

New Standard Approved by ANSI

B5.1:2003, Specification for the Qualifi- cation of Welding Inspectors. Approval date: April 29, 2003. •

E,"[~l JULY 2003 I

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D!strict 18 D rector Presents Awards

The District Director Award pro- vides a means for District Directors to recognize individuals who have con- tributed their time and effort to the af- fairs of their local Section and/or Dis- trict.

District 18 Director John L. Men- doza has nominated the following with this award for 2002-2003.

Tommy Campbell Corpus Christi

M o r r i s Weeks Mark Clark


Jimmy Veillon Nicholette Savoy

Lake Charles

Dan Jones Dave Mason

Asif Latif Kim Smith


Frances Guerrero Nora Mendoza

Joseph Guerrero Judy Lynn

San Antonio

Student Chapters, Send Us Your News

Student Chapters are encouraged to send reports of their meetings, activ- ities and events, along with photo- graphs, for publicat ion in the Welding Journal's Student Activities department.

Send your meeting/event reports to

Susan Campbell Associate Editor Welding Journal

550 NW LeJeune Rd. Miami, FL 33126

telephone: (800) 443-9353, ext. 244 e-mail: [emailprotected]

American Welding Society Memorial Resolution

The AWS board of directors has moved to honor the memory of Dr. Nelson C. Wall, AWS deputy executive director emeritus, by placing a memorial resolution in the permanent records of the Society. His contribution to the Society shall be missed.

The AWS board of directors ob- serves with deep regret the death of for- mer AWS Deputy Executive Director Dr. Nelson C. Wall on May 12, 2003.

Dr. Nelson C. Wall jo ined the staff of the American Welding Society in 1981 as director of education. In 1985, Dr. Wall was named to the posit ion of deputy executive director. He ret i red from the American Welding Society on October 31, 1996.

Dr. Wall received a B.S. degree in me- chanical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology and a doctorate in political science from Universidad de La Habana, Havana, Cuba.

Nelson C. Wall

Dr. Wall served as AWS international program manager for many years and, as a representative of AWS, was responsible for many of the International Agreements of Cooperat ion that AWS shares with societies around the world. He was also in- strumental in the formulation of the AWS S.E.N.S.E. program.

In recognition of the many contributions of Dr. Nelson C. Wall to the Society, the board of directors wishes to record the following:

WHEREAS, the American Welding Society sustained an irreplaceable loss with the death of former Deputy Executive Director Dr. Nelson C. Wall, and

WHEREAS, Dr. Nelson C. Wall served the Society and the welding industry honor- ably, opening new pathways of communication and cooperation with both national and international sister societies, and

WHEREAS, Dr. Nelson C. Wall served the Society and its members with honor, dig- nity, and distinction, therefore

BE IT RESOLVED that the American Welding Society board of directors, in the special meeting held May 19, 2003, records its sorrow at the loss of a valued associ- ate and expresses its appreciation for the many contributions, years of service, and loyalty of Dr. Nelson C. Wall, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that these resolutions be placed in the permanent records of the American Welding Society and that a copy be presented to his wife, Cary. •


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AWS and Germany's DVS Sign Cooperative Agreement

Dr. Detlef von Hole, executive director of DVS (the German Welding Society), right, and American Welding Society President Ernest Levert signing an International Cooperative

• Agreement betweeen the two societies during Levert's visit to DVS's headquarters in Dusseldorf,, Germany, on April 23.

The ASNT Signs Transitioning Agreement with AWS for CWIs and SCWIs

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) and AWS signed an agreement, effective May 28, 2003, permitting Certified Welding Inspectors (CWIs) and Senior Certified Welding Inspectors (SCWls) to transition to the ASNT Cen- tral Certification Program (ACCP) without additional examination. All AWS Cer- tified Welding Inspectors and Senior Certified Welding Inspectors holding valid certificates are eligible to apply for transitioning through the September 30 appli- cation deadline.

The ASNT Central Certification Program provides visual inspection certifica- tion in accordance with ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A. It is the most widely referenced NDT program document and is specified in codes world- wide, most notably by ASME. Significantly, the ACCP certificate permits the holder to work under numerous codes, standards, and specifications.

Certified Welding Inspectors and SCWIs who transition will be issued ACCP VT Level II in the Visual Testing for the Direct Visual Inspection technique under the ACCP General Industry (GI) Sector. A Remote technique may be applied for as well. The Remote technique covers fiber optics, borescopes, and computer- assisted and other remote viewing equipment. To add the technique, applicants must provide additional documentation. The GI Sector is for personnel perform- ing general inspection tasks in multiple industries.

If they can satisfy additional requirements, CWls and SCWls can apply for Level II certification in the ACCP Pressure Equipment (PE) Sector. The PE Sector is de- signed for those personnel that have documented experience in pressure-related work.

Prior to approving the AWS programs for transitioning, the ASNT Certification Management Council (CMC) did a thorough review of the requirements for CWI and SCWI certification. The CMC determined that the CWI experience and exam- ination requirements satisfy the requirements of the ACCP for VT Level II in the Direct viewing test technique. It was determined that the SCWI examinations did not cover the full scope of the Basic and Method tests that are a required part of

B,"P,,! JULY 2003 ]

District 15 Director Presents Awards

The District Director Award pro- vides a means for District Directors to recognize individuals who have con- tributed their time and effort to the af- fairs of their local Section and/or Dis- trict.

District 15 Director Jack D. Heikki- nen has nominated the following with this award for 2002-03.

Joel Johnson Ralph Williams

Tim Schwanz John Cox

Blake English Mick Tronson

Jessie Hopewell Dave Lynnes

Northern Plains

Thomas Baldwin Loren J. Kantola


John R. Pennaz Mace Harris Dale Szabla Tom Laberta

Mark Sandvig Northwest

the ACCP Level III certification re- quirements; however, SCWls are eligi- ble to transition to ACCP VT Level II.

The cost for transitioning, regard- less of type of certification, is $150, which must be submitted with the com- pleted application by the Septmber 30 application deadline.

Applicants must complete an ACCP transitioning application, submit a copy of current CWI or SCWI certificate, and a valid vision test. The ACCP re- quires that the vision test document the applicant's ability to read a Jaeger J-1 text.

All successful applicants will receive certification as an ACCP VT Level II in the Direct testing technique. Those applicants applying for the additional Remote technique must document ex- perience with remote viewing equip- ment and have their employer attest to that experience as well.

Applications and more information may be found at the ASNT Web site at www.asnt.org/certification/accp/transi tion.htm. •

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ABC Disposal Service Plant Manager Chris Ross, center, showing Central Massachu- setts~Rhode Island Section members a grate through which materials to be hardfaced are crushed.

Affiliation: ABC Disposal Service. D I S T R I C T 1 Topic: Operation of materials recycling. Director: Russell L. Norris Phone: (800) 559-9353

MAINE OCTOBER 12, 2002 Speaker: Jim Reid, stainless welding technician. Affiliation: Consultant to Red Hook Brewing. Topic: The use of stainless steel in the modem brewing process.

CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS/ RHODE ISLAND FEBRUARY 22 Speaker: Chris Ross, plant manager and foreman.

MARCH 20 Speakers: Bruce Richardson and Jim Harrington. Affiliation: ABC Testing. Activity: Certification Night was held at Old Colony Regional Vocational Technical High School. Activity: Members took a welding test to become certified under the Massachusetts Highway Department using AWS D1.5, Bridge Welding Code.

GREEN & WHITE MOUNTAINS MARCH 2 Activity: The Section organized and operated the Vermont SkillsUSA Weld

Central Massachusetts~Rhode Island Sec- tion member Steve St. John, left, observ- ing George Bumiha, Jr., taking his 3-G test.

From left at the Boston Section's May tour of the Iron Workers Local #7 training fa- cility are Section Chairman Tom Free, Larry Harganon, guest speaker Steve Flowers, and Tom Frazier.

Trials. Ten students competed in the contest.

CONNECTICUT MARCH 11 Speaker: John Guliotti, principal weld- ing engineer. Affiliation: Electric Boat Division, General Dynamics Corp., Groton, Conn. Topic: Welding process and filler metal selection. Activity: This was a joint meeting with the ASM Hartford Chapter.

Stopping for a photograph are six of the ten student competitors in the Vermont SkillsUSA weld trials held by the Green & White Mountains Section.

BOSTON MAY 12 Speakers: Steve Flowers, welding in- structor and member of Iron Workers Local #7, and Brendan MeLeilan. Affiliation: Southeast Regional Voca- tional High School, South Easton,


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Mass., and The Lincoln Electric Co. Topic: McLellan gave a slide presenta- tion on self-shielded FCAW electrodes. Activity: Flowers guided members on a tour of Local #7 's state-of-the-art train- ing facility.

DISTRICT 2 Director: Alfred F. Fleury Phone: (732) 8 6 8 - 0 7 6 8

READING MARCH 5 Speaker: Bob Sommer. Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Topic: Controlling weld distortion. Activity: This was the first session of the Section's Welding Seminar.

MARCH 12 Speakers: Roger Bushey and Jerry Do- hetty.

Affiliation: ESAB Group, Hanover, Pa. Topic: Maintenance welding and cast- iron repair. Activity: Session two of the Section's Welding Seminar.

MARCH 15 Activity: The Section held its Annual Vo-Tech Welding Contest at Lancaster County Career and Technical Center. Twenty-six students participated. Act- ing as judges for the contest were Dave Hibshman, Gene Henry, Dave Ochs, and Frank Roberts.

MARCH 19 Speaker: Dave Colwell, senior technical representative and AWS CWI. Affiliation: J. W. Harris Co., Inc., Mason, Ohio. Topic: Soldering and brazing. Activity: The Section held the third ses- sion of its Welding Seminar.

APRIL 17 Speaker: George Bottenfield, District 3 Deputy Director and York-Central Pennsylvania Section chairman.

Guest speaker Bill Campbell, seated at center, and members of the New York Section.

NEW YORK MARCH 18 Speaker: Bill Campbell , welding in- structor. Affiliation: New York District Council of Carpenters Technical College. Activity: Hands-on welding demonstra- tions.

DISTRICT 3 Director: Alan J. Badeaux, Sr. Phone: (301) 449-4800, ext. 286

Jerry Doherty demonstrating the proper technique of repair welding on cast iron at the second session of the Reading Sec- tion's Welding Seminar

Reading Section Treasurer and Founda- tion Representative Dave Hibshman, left, presenting David Butkis with a Section scholarship.

Guest Speaker Dave Colwell, second from left, during his presentation at the Reading Section's third session of its Welding Seminar

E , ~ I JULY 2003 I I

Reading Section Treasurer and Seminar Chairman Dave Hibshman, left, present- ing a speaker's gift to Bob Sommer.

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Reading Section members and students at the Section's Annual Vo-Tech Welding Con- test. Holding the banner is welding instructor John Boyer.

South Carolina Section Chairman Gale Mole, left, with guest speaker Dave Lackey at the Section's April meeting.

Reading Section Chairman John Miller, right, presenting District 3 Deputy Direc- tor George Bottenfield with a speaker's gift.

Affiliation: American Welding Society. Activity: The Section presented District 3 Director Awards and David Bntkus received a $500 scholarship toward his expenses at the Hobart Institute of Welding. Merrie Butkus received the Exemplary Service Award for her dedi- cation to the Section.

Attending the Southwest Virginia Sec- tion's April meeting are, from left, Incom- ing District 4 Director Ted Alberts, guest speaker David McQuaid, and Incoming Chairman Bill Rhodes.

DISTRICT 5 Director: Wayne J. Engeren Phone: (404) 5 0 1 - 9 1 8 5

SOUTH CAROLINA APRIL 17 Speaker: Dave Lackey, district manager. Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co., Charlotte, N.C. Topic: The importance of AWS Certi- fied Welding Inspector credentials.

New River Valley Plant Technical Leader Wayne Johnson, left, accepting an Appre- ciation Plaque from Southwest Virginia Section Secretary Bill Rhodes.

DISTRICT 6 Director: Neal A. Chapman Phone: (315) 3 4 9 - 6 9 6 0

DISTRICT 7 Director: Robert J. Tabernik Phone: (614) 4 8 8 - 7 9 1 3

COLUMBUS APRIL 17 Speaker: Jerry Van Meter, product development engineer.

DISTRICT 4 Director: Ted Alberts Phone: (540) 674-3600, ext. 4314

SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA APRIL 23 Speaker: David L. McQuaid. Affiliation: D. L. McQuaid and Associ- ates. Topic: The Northridge earthquake.

MAY 15 Activity: Members toured the New River Valley Plant, which produces both Volvo and Mack road tractors.

Columbus Section Chairman John Lawmon, center right, presenting the Section's Weld- ing Helmet Clock to guest speaker Jerry Van Meter, center left.


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Columbus Section Chairman John Law- mon, with his Distinguished Service Award and friends, during the May meeting.

Affiliation: Nippert Co. Activity: Members toured the two Nippert Company plants in Delaware, Ohio.

~ v 8 Speaker: John Lawmon, chairman. Affiliation: AWS Columbus Section. Activity: Members voted on officers for the 2003-2004 year and discussed pos- sible meeting topics and plant tours. Lawmon was presented with a Distinguished Service Award.

DISTRICT 8 Director: Wal lace E. Honey Phone: (256) 3 3 2 - 3 3 6 6

NASHVILLE ~ ¥ 3 Activity: The Section held its annual pic- nic at Long Hunter State Park. Schol- arships were presented to students from the Tennessee Technology Center at Crossville.

CHATTANOOGA MAY Activity: Josh Harvey, the first place winner in the secondary school category of the Tennessee SkillsUSA welding contest, and his instructor, Dave Hamil- ton, spoke to members.

DISTRICT 9 Director: John Bruskot te r Phone: (504) 3 6 7 - 0 6 0 3

NEW ORLEANS APRIL 15 Activity: Section members toured the Gootee Construction facility and viewed demonstrations of orbital weld- ing. Emile Miller won the night's 50/50 drawing.

MAY3 Activity: The Section held its Annual Redfish and Speckled Trout Rodeo. The

I [ , - I ; ! JULY 2003 ] I

Patrick Gootee, president o f Gootee Con- struction, left, and New Orleans Section Chairman Lenis Doiron, center, present- ing a host's plaque to Gootee Construc- tion Vice President Dwayne Hammer.

Showing of f some of the prize-winning redfish at the New Orleans Redfish and Speckled Trout Rodeo are, from left, Vin- cent Todaro, Sr., Rodeo Chairman Mike Skilea, and Vincent Todaro, Jr.

New Orleans Redfish and Speckled Trout Rodeo Chairman Mike Skiles, left, with Rodeo Weight Master Ivy Bernard, right, and first place speckled trout win- ner Butsie Duhon, left center, and first place redfish winner Blair Duhon, right center.

winners in the redfish category were Blair Duhon in first place with 8.3 lb,

Vincent Todaro, Jr., in second with 6.9 lb, Ken Ashworth in third with 6.3 lb, and Butsie Duhon in fourth with 6.1 lb. Vincent Todaro, Jr., won the Red- fish Calcutta with 27.1 lb. Winners in the speckled trout category were But- sie Duhon in first place with 3.4 lb, Sherman Sanchez in second with 2.9 lb, and Blair Duhon and Raymond Birdsall in a tie for third place with 2.4 lb each. Butsie Duhon won the Speck- led Trout Calcutta with 11.6 lb. Cor- porate sponsors of the event were ConocoPhillips - Alliance Refinery; Owensby and Kritikos, Inc.; and In- spection Specialists. Proceeds from the event benefit the Section's schol- arship fund.

MOBILE APRIL 17 Speaker: Jackie Morris, QA manager. Affiliation: Bender Shipbuilding and

The ConocoPhillips fishing team at the New Orleans Redfish and Speckled Trout Rodeo. ConocoPhillips is the Section's first Titanium Sponsor for the event.

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Mobile Section Treasurer Eleanor Ezell presenting a speaker's plaque to Jackie Morris.

District 9 Director John Bruskotter, left, presenting the Section Meritorious Award to Pascagoula Section Chairman Darren Haas.

Pascagoula Section Chairman Darren Haas, right, presenting a speaker's plaque to Bill Stone.

Repair Co., Mobile, Ala. Activity: Members toured Bender Ship- building and Repair Co.'s laser shop and panel line.

PASCAGOULA APRIL 22 Speaker: Bill Stone, welding inspector.

Student participants in the Birmingham Section's Secondary School Welding Competi- tion pose for a photograph.

Affiliation: Halter Marine, Moss Point, Miss. Topic: Welding inspections. Activity: Gerald Shepard received the Distinguished Service Award, and Dar- ten Haas was presented with the Sec- tion Meritorious Award.

BIRMINGHAM MAY 3 Activity: The Section held the Sec- ondary School Welding Competition at Bessemer State Technical College. Eighteen students participated from four high school welding programs. Stu- dents were required to fabricate a weld- ment and perform SMA, GMA, and/or FCA welding. Winners received a schol- arship for Bessemer State's welding technology program.

DISTRICT 10 Director: Victor Y. Mat thews Phone: (216) 3 8 3 - 2 6 3 8

DISTRICT 1 1 Director: Eftihios Siradakis Phone: (989) 8 9 4 - 4 1 0 1

WESTERN MICHIGAN APRIL 22 Activity: District 11 held its Annual Quiz the Experts Night. The night was hosted by the Western Michigan Sec- tion. Members of the Western and Cen- tral Michigan Sections and the Ferris State University Student Chapter at- tended the event.

MAY 19 Activity: Members toured the Western Michigan Fifth Third Ballpark in Com-

A WS President Ernest Levert, left, con- gratulating Michael Karagoulis, center, upon District 11 Director Scott Chapple's presentation o f the District Meritorious Award.

stock Park, Mich. The tour included the inside of the ballpark, the clubhouse, luxury suites, and the press boxes.

NORTHWEST OHIO ~ v 8 Speaker: Richard West, chairman. Affiliation: AWS Northwest Ohio Sec- tion. Topic: Highs and lows of the past year's meetings and meeting topics for the 2003-2004 year.

DETROIT MAY 2 Activity: More than 700 members and guests of the Section took part in its an- nual Ladies' Night celebration at De- troit's Cobo Conference/Exhibition Center. AWS President Ernest Levert was on hand to assist District 11 Direc- tor Scott Chapple in awarding the Dis- trict Meritorious Award to Michael Karagoulis for his efforts in chairing the Detroit Section's Sheet Metal Confer- ences 9, 10, and 11 (scheduled for May 2004). Proceeds from the event benefit the Section's scholarship fund.


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Recefi4ng scholarships from the Milwaukee Section are, from left, John Schneider, Steve Gapp, Kory Satka, Cheryl Wirkus, and Lonnie Czapiewski.

Inside the Lincoln Welding Garage at the Indianapolis 500 are, from left, St. Louis Sec- tion First Vice Chairman Kevin Corgan, Wyatt Swaim, Gay Cornel, Jeremy Nawyen, and Jerry Simpson. Cornel and Simpson are St. Louis Section members.

Fox Valley Section Chairman Sean Moran, left, presenting Dave Hoffman with the A WS District 12 Educator of the Year Award.

DISTRICT 12 Director: Michael D. Kersey Phone: (262) 6 5 0 - 9 3 6 4

MILWAUKEE "APRIL 15 Speaker: Richard Arn, president and past AWS president. Affiliation: WELDtech International. Topic: Reclamation of steel and alu- minum mill rolls. Activity: This was a joint meeting with the ASM Milwaukee Chapter. Scholar- ships were awarded to John Schneider and Steve Gapp of Waukesha Commu- nity Technical College and Kory Satka, Cheryl Wirkus, and Lonnie Czapiewski of Milwaukee Area Technical College.

FOX VALLEY .APRIL 17 Speakers and Affiliations: Scan Moran, Eric Young, and Dennis Tie(it, Miller

Electric Mfg. Co.; Dave ltoffman, Fox Valley Technical College; Tom Trieber, Interstate Welding Supply; and Scot Forbes, Tech Aid. Topic: Careers in welding, education options, and live welding and cutting demonstrations. Activity: The Section held Student Night at the Fox Valley Technical Col- lege in Appleton, Wis. Dave Hoffman was presented with the AWS District 12 Educator of the Year Award.

DISTRICT 13 Director: J. L. Hunter Phone: (309) 8 8 8 - 8 9 5 6

DISTRICT 14 Director: Tully C. Parker Phone: (618) 667 -7744

Brandon Lester, left, accepting the ftrst- place award in the state SkillsUSA Weld- ing Contest from Lexington Section Chairman Frank McKinley.

ST. LOUIS APRIL 15 Activity: Members Gay Cornel and Jerry Simpson organized a chartered bus to take members to the Indianapo- lis 500 Time Trials. Despite being rained out, members still had a fun trip that in- cluded passes to Gasoline Alley and the Indy-500 Museum. Wyatt Swaim of High Tech Welding/Lincoln Electric and Jeremy Nawyn took members on a tour of the Lincoln Electric Welding Garage.

INDIANA APRIL 21 Speaker: Bob Evans, past chairman (1954). Affiliation: AWS Indiana Section. Topic: Personal experiences in the field of welding. Activity: AWS Past President Harry Prah was awarded for 50 years of AWS membership.

IE.1:! JULY 2003 [

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RECRUIT NEW MEMBERS... WIN GREAT PRIZES A s imple way to give b a c k to you r p rofess ion , s t reng then AWS and win grea t pr izes is by par t ic ipa t ing in th-

2 0 0 3 - 2 0 0 4 M e m b e r - G e t - A - M e m b e r Campaign . By recru i t ing new m e m b e r s to AWS, y o u ' r e add ing to the r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y to e x p a n d you r benefi ts as an AWS Member . Plus, you b e c o m e pa r t of an exclusive

g r o u p of AWS M e m b e r s who get involved. Year round , you ' l l have the oppor tun i ty to recru i t new m e m b e r and be el igible to win specia l contes ts and prizes. Referra ls a re o u r m o s t successfu l m e m b e r r ec ru i tmen t Our M e m b e r s k n o w f i rs t -hand h o w useful AWS M e m b e r s h i p is. Who bet ter than you to e n c o u r a g e someo:

to join AWS?

!iii~i ~ :! :~


1! Annual subscription to the Welding Journal. A 25% discount on hundreds of first-rate AWS technical publications and 140+ industry codes. Deep discounts on 120+ technical training events every year. Access to widely recognized AWS Certification programs. New Members can save nearly 90% off an AWS publication. Choose from four of our most popular titles (see reverse). AWS Membership Certificate and Card.

INVOLVED TODAY, AND WIN! PRIZE CATEGORIES President's Honor Roll: Recruit 1-5 new Individual Members and receive a welding ball cap.

President's Club: Recruit 6-10 new Individual Members and receive an American Welder TM polo shirt.

President's Roundtable: Recruit 11-19 new Individual Members and receive an American Welder TM watch.

President's Guild: Recruit 20 or more new Individual Members and receive an American Welder TM watch, a one-year free AWS Membership, the "Shelton Bitter Member Proposer Award" Certificate and membership in the Winner's Circle.

Winner's Circle: All members who recruit 20 or more new Individual Members will receive annual recognition in the Welding Journal and will be honored at the AWS Welding Show.

SPECIAL PRIZES Partidpants will also be eligible to win prizes in specialized categories. Prizes will be awarded at the close of the campaign (June 2004).

Sponsor of the Year'. The individual who sponsors the greatest number of new Individual Members during the campaign will receive a plaque, a trip to the 2005 AWS Welding Show, and recognition at the AWS Awards Luncheon at the AWS Welding Show.

Student Sponsor Prize: hWS Members who sponsor two or more Student Members will receive a welding ball cap.

The AWS Member who sponsors the most Student Members will receive a free, one-year AWS Membership and an American Welder TM polo shirt.

International Sponsor Prize: Any member residing outside the United States, Canada and Mexico who sponsors the most new Individual Members will receive a complimentary AWS Membership renewal.

• lhe 2003-2004MGM Campaign runs from June 1, 2003 to m~, 31, 2004. Prizes are awarded at the close of the campaign.

• Networking opportunities through local Section meetings, the AWS Welding Show and an on- line bulletin board on the AWS website at <www.aws.org>.

• Members'-only discounts on auto insurance, car rentals, credit cards and more.

• Connection to career opportunities through AWS JobFind - at www.aws.org/jobfind

• The American Welder section of the WJ geared toward front-line welders.

• And much more!

LUCK OF THE DRAW For every new member you sponsor, your name is entered into a quarterly drawing. The more new members you sponsor, the greater your chances of winning. Prizes will be a~arded in November 2003, as well as in February and June 2004. Prizes Include: • American Welder TM T-shirt • one-page, black/white ad in the Welding Journal • Complimentary AWS Membership renewal • American Welder TM polo shirt • American Welder TM baseball cap

SUPER SECTION CHALLENGE The AWS Section in each District that achieves the highest net percentage increase in new Individual Members before the June 2004 deadline will receive special recognition in the Welding Journal.

The AWS Sections with the highest numerical increase and greatest net percentage increase in new Individual Members will each receive the Neitzel Membership Award.

American Welding Society

Visit our website http://www.aws.org

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Lexington Section Chairman Frank McKinley with his wife, Mary.

LEXINGTON APRIL 24 Speaker: Bill Cross. Affiliation: Scot-Gross Welding. Topic: Gases. Activity: Brandon Lester received an award for taking first place in the state SkillsUSA Welding Contest. Chairman Frank McKinley was awarded with a three-day trip to the Smoky Mountains for his outstanding service to the Sec- tion for the past ten years.

DISTRICT 15 Director: J. D. Heikkinen Phone: (218) 7 4 1 - 9 6 9 3

Houston Section member and past Dis- trict 18 Director Ron Thiess with Kim Smith, left, and Sarah Wood at the Hous- ton Section's Annual Golf Outing.

Sabine Section members check out the World War H artillery piece on display at the Section's Annual Crawfish Boil.

San Antonio Section members at the May meeting.

Month" in the state of Texas and Mayor Edward Garza proclaimed the same in San Antonio.

SABINE MAY 20 Activity: The Section held its Annual Crawfish Boil at the Weeks Welding Labs in Nederland, Tex. Officers for the 2003-2004 year were voted in. Elected are James Amy as chairman; Tom Holt, first vice chairman; Matthew Jowett, second vice chairman; Mark Clark, see- retary; Ruel Riggs, treasurer; and Kim McKensie, Ken Sennett, David Morgan, Carey Wesley, Sudhanshu Ogale, Mor- ris Weeks, Alton Wolf, and Pat Becker as directors.

DISTRICT 16 Director: C. F. Burg Phone: (515) 2 9 4 - 5 4 2 8

DISTRICT 17 Director: Oren P. Reich Phone: (254) 8 6 7 - 2 2 0 3

CENTRAL TEXAS APRIL 22 Speaker: Andy Divin. Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co. Topic: Robotic welding.

DISTRICT 18 Director: John Mendoza Phone: (210) 8 6 0 - 2 5 9 2

HOUSTON APRIL 28 Activity: The Section held its Annual Golf Outing. Eighty-three golfers par- ticipated in the event, which benefits the Section's scholarship fund.

Incoming Sabine Section Chairman Morris Weeks, right, presenting outgo- ing Chairman Carey Wesley with a chairman 'spin and a Certificate of Ap- preciation.

SAN ANTONIO MAY 13 Speaker: Martin Landgraf. Affiliation: San Antonio Police Depart- ment. Topic: Protection against identity theft. Noted: Honorable Governor Rick Perry proclaimed April 2003 "Welding

DISTRICT 19 Director: Phil Zammit Phone: (509) 468 -2310 ext. 120

Puget Sound Section guest speakers, from left, Steve Carter, Chris Sundberg, Steve Pollard, Blaine Mald at the Section's May meeting.

PUGET SOUND MAY 9 Speakers and Affiliations: Steve Carter, PC & welding engineer, PRECOR; Chris Sundherg, PC and engineering manager, CH2M-Hill; Steve Pollard,


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Attending the Lake Washington Technical College Welding Advisory Committee meet- ing from the Puget Sound Section are, front row from left, Jim Agnew, Steve Nielson, Steve Pollard, Chuck Daily, back row left to right, Ben Paves, Phil Proctor, Jerry Hope, Frank Drumm, Rick Forster, Ron Bart, Shawn McDaniel, and Dave Cunningham.

PC and engineering manager, M. Inc.; and Blaine Maki, manager, Metal Test, Inc. Topic: Pros and cons of welding proce- dures specifications (WPSs) and PQRs.

MAY 15 Activity: Members of the Section's Welding Advisory Committee meeting met at Lake Washington Technical Col- lege. The committee requested two welding instructors for 7 to 15 students. Attending the meeting were Jim Agnew, Steve Nielson, Steve Pollard, Chuck Daily, Ben Paves, Phil Proctor, Jerry Hope, Frank Drumm, Ron Bart, Shawn McDaniel, and Dave Cunningham. Rick Forster, owner/manager of Rainier Welding, Inc., was presented with a Certificate of Appreciation by Dave Cunningham, dean of Lake Washington Technical College.

ALASKA MAY 17 Activity: Section members enjoyed the Annual Picnic. Activities: The Section awarded a $500 travel allowance and a one-year AWS membership to Neal Miner, winner of

the state high school welding competi- tion.

Officers for the 2003-2004 year are Bruce Weisman, chairman; Dan Rogers, first vice chairman; Brian Walsh, sec- ond vice chairman; Bob McCauley, treasurer; Creighton Moore, treasurer; and Duane Goodrich, Jack Simpson, and Mark Wood as members-at-large.

DISTRICT 20 Director: Jesse A. Grantham Phone: (303) 4 5 1 - 6 7 5 9

DISTRICT 21 Director: Les Bennett Phone: (805) 9 2 9 - 2 3 5 6

DISTRICT 22 Director: Kent S. Baucher Phone: (559) 276 -9311

A m e r i c a n W e l d e r Gear Avai lab le on the AWS Web Si te

The American Welding Society proudly introduces a new line of American Welder" Gear. The line carries more than 60 products ranging from pens to ap- parel to watches. AWS members receive a 10% discount on purchases. To check out the full line of Gear, visit www.aws.org/gear/or call (800) 443-9353 to request a catalog. *

BIr#.iB JULY 2003 [

Kansas City SecUon Promotes Education

Kansas City Section member Dave Kopek, left, and Chairman Bob Wor- thington during their presentation to stu- dents at the Fifth Annual Middle School Design-Build Competition in March.

Recent studies conducted by the U.S. government show that the nation's construction force is dwindling and fewer high school and college students are interested; nor do they have the skills necessary to pursue this field as their career.

In order to combat this predicted shortage, many organizations across the United States. have begun to take ac- tion, primarily in the form of early edu- cation that targets young students to spark their interest. One such organiza- tion engaged in these activities is the Center for Construction Excellence (CCE) at the University of Missouri- Kansas City's (UMKC) School of Inter- disciplinary Computing and Engineer- ing.

The CCE exists to raise awareness of the construction industry for Mis- souri and Kansas students, from grade school to high school. The CCE empha- sizes the importance of math, science, English, and technology and how each applies to the construction industry.

Putting their words into action, on March 4 the CCE, along with cosponsor Black & Veatch, held the Fifth Annual Middle School Design-Build Competi- tion in Kansas City, Mo. More than 2400 students attended and demonstrated their skills.

The Kansas City AWS Section par- ticipated in order to promote and im- prove educational opportunities in weld- ing for young people in Kansas and Mis- souri middle schools. # - - Information provided by Bob Worthington, AWS Kansas City Section

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2 0 0 2 - 2 0 0 3 Member-Get-A-Member Campaign Lis ted below are the people participating in the 2002-2003 Member-Get -A-Member Campaign. For campaign rules and a prize list, please

seepage 69 o f this Welding Journal I f you have any questions regarding your m e m b e r proposer points, please call the Membership Department at (800) 443-9353 ext. 480.

Winner's Circle (A W S M e m b e r s s p o n s o r i n g 2 0 o r m o r e n e w I n d i v i d u a l M e m b e r s , p e r year, s i nce June 1, 1999.)

J. Compton, San Fernando Valley*** E. H. Ezell, Mobile** J. Merzthal, Peru** B. A. Mikeska, H o u s t o n * R. L. Peaslee, Detroit* W. L. Shreve, Fox Valley* G. Taylor, Pascagoula** T. W e a v e r , J o h n s t o w n M l t o o n a * G. Woomer, J o h n s t o w n M l t o o n a * R. Wray, Nebraska*

*Denotes the n u m b e r o f t imes an Indiv id- ua l M e m b e r h a s a c h i e v e d W i n n e r ' s Cir- cle s ta tus . S t a t u s wi l l be a w a r d e d at the close o f each m e m b e r s h i p c a m p a i g n year.

President's Guild (A W S M e m b e r s s p o n s o r i n g 2 0 o r m o r e n e w Ind i v idua l M e m b e r s be tween J u n e 1, 2002, a n d M a y 31, 2003.)

J. Compton, San Fernando Valley - - 38 S. McGill, Nor theas t Tennessee - - 20

President's Round Table (A W S M e m b e r s sponsor ing 1 1 - 1 9 n e w In - d i v idua l M e m b e r s be tween J u n e 1, 2002, a n d M a y 31, 2003.)

G. W. Taylor, Pascagoula - - 15 G. Fairbanks, Jr., B a t o n R o u g e - - 13 E. Levert, Nor th Texas - - 13 T. Ferri, B o s t o n - - 11 J. Grantham, Colorado - - 11

President's Club (A W S m e m b e r s sponsor ing 6 - 1 0 n e w In -

d i v idua l M e m b e r s b e t w e e n J u n e 1, 2002, a n d M a y 31, 2003.)

R. Purvis, S a c r a m e n t o - - 10 J. Hope, W y o m i n g - - 9 B. McGuire, E a s t Texas - - 9 T. Fleckenstein, N o r t h Texas - - 8 J. Hannahs, D a y t o n - - 8 J. Scott, H o u s t o n - - 8 M. Kincheloe, H o l s t o n Valley - - 7 D. Wright, K a n s a s City - - 7 C. Dynes, Kern - - 6

President's Honor Roll (A W S m e m b e r s s p o n s o r i n g 1 - 5 n e w In - d i v idua l M e m b e r s b e t w e e n J u n e 1, 2002,

a n d M a y 31, 2003. Only those sponsor ing 2 o r m o r e A W S I n d i v i d u a l M e m b e r s are listed.)

J. Carney, Western Mich igan - - 5 E Luening, H o u s t o n - - 5 T. Skaff, L A / l n l a n d E m p i r e - - 5 R. Fontenot, O k l a h o m a City - - 4 W. Galvery, Jr., Long Bch./Orange Cnty - -4 S. Giese, E as t Texas - - 4 G. Huegin, Central M a s s . / R . L - - 4 G. Baum, Detroi t - - 3 E Brieden, Leh igh Valley - - 3 R. Corsaro, Niagara F r o n t i e r - - 3 R. Howard, Louisv i l le - - 3 E Juckem, Madison -Be lo i t - - 3 G. Mulee, R o c h e s t e r - - 3 G. O'Connor, N e w Jersey - - 3 R. Robles, Corpus Christ i - - 3 J. Ruiz-Castro, N e w Jersey - - 3 D. Scott, Peoria - - 3 K. Tebeau, Detroi t - - 3 R. Tupta, M i l w a u k e e - - 3 C. Wesley, N W Pennsy lvania - - 3 E Zammit, S p o k a n e - - 3 G. Atherton, Phi lade lphia - - 2 J. Biegas, Roches t e r - - 2 E Bonifatti, In terna t ional - - 2 C. Casey, A r i z o n a - - 2 C. Daily, Puge t S o u n d - - 2 J. Dolfi, Detroi t - - 2 A. Duschere, L o n g I s l and - - 2 T. Erichsen, Santa Clara Valley - - 2 E. Ezell, Mobi l e - - 2 M. Fedoruk, M a r y l a n d - - 2 R. Fitch, S o u t h w e s t Virginia - - 2 N. Goel, L o n g I s land - - 2 S. Harville, Mobi l e - - 2 J. Heinbigner, Fox Valley - - 2 S. Hunt, Shrevepor t - - 2 W. Kielhorn, E a s t Texas - - 2 E Langs, Centra l Mass . /R . I . - - 2 L. Lenker, O k l a h o m a City - - 2 D. L o c k m a n , A l a s k a - - 2

A. Lynch, Pit tsburgh - - 2 S. Mackenzie, Nor thern Mich igan - - 2 M. Marcum, J o h n n y A p p l e s e e d - - 2 D. Moulton, S a g i n a w Valley - - 2 E Nguni, N e w Jersey - - 2 J. Norrish, I n t e r n a t i o n a l - - 2 M. Perry, Tulsa - - 2 M. Powell, Leh igh Valley - - 2 D. Roskiewich, Phi lade lphia - - 2 R. Smith, Tri-State - - 2 G. Spengler, Chicago - - 2 R. Stobaugh, Jr., Carol ina - - 2 J. Wells, Central Texas - - 2

B. Worley, D a y t o n - - 2

Student Sponsors (A W S m e m b e r s sponsor ing 3 o r m o r e n e w

A W S S t u d e n t M e m b e r s b e t w e e n J u n e 1, 2002, a n d M a y 3 L 2003.)

D. Scott, Peoria - - 130 C. Wesley, Nor thwes t e rn Pa. - - 62 W Galvery, Jr., Ltm~Bch./Orange Ctay - - 37 A. Lynch, Pit tsburgh - - 34 S. Caldera, Por t land - - 30 B. Huff, S a n g a m o n Valley - - 26 J. Sullivan, Mobi l e - - 26 T. Geisler, Pit tsburgh - - 24 S. Siviski, M a i n e - - 24 R. Grays, Kern - - 23 D. Combs, San ta Clara Valley - - 22 H. Browne, N e w Jersey - - 21 R. Durham, Cinc innat i - - 21 E Mong, Pit tsburgh - - 21 J. Cox, Nor the rn Pla ins - - 20 W Harris, Pascagoula - - 20 K. Langdon, J o h n n y A p p l e s e e d - - 19 R. Boyer, N e v a d a - - 18 G. Euliano, Nor thwes te rn Pa. - - 18 G. Woomer, J o h n s t o w n / A l t o o n a - - 18 V. Hunter, B l a c k h a w k - - 17 D. Marks, Leh igh Valley - - 17 R. Robles, Corpus Christi - - 17 E Juckem, Madison -Be lo i t - - 16 W. Kielhorn, E a s t Texas - - 16 M. Anderson, I nd iana - - 15 J. Hayes, O k l a h o m a C i t y - 15 R. Norris, M a i n e - - 15 D. Roskiewich, Phi ladelphia - - 15 E Wernet, Leh igh Valley - - 15 S. Zwilling, Louisv i l le - - 15 L. Davis, N e w Orleans - - 14 R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers - - 14 B. Lavallee, Nor the rn N e w York - - 14 E. Soto Ruiz, Puer to R i co - - 14 D. Zabel, Sou theas t N e b r a s k a - - 13 A. Badeaux, Washington, D . C . - 12 A. DeMarco, N e w Orleans - - 12 C. Kipp, Leh igh Valley - - 11 E Madrid, A r i z o n a - - 11 R. Shrewsbury, T r i - S t a t e - 11 R. Hilty, Pit tsburgh - - 10 T. S t r ic ldand , A r i z o n a - - 10 K. Geist, Olymp ic - - 9 D. Hatfield, Tulsa - - 9 S. Hoff, S a n g a m o n Valley - - 9 C. Jones, H o u s t o n - - 9 D. Ketler, Wil l iamet te Valley - - 9 J. Pelster, Sou theas t N e b r a s k a - - 9 M. Pointer, Sierra N e v a d a - - 8 E Walker, O z a r k - - 8 J. Livesay, Nashvi l l e - - 7 R . Rux , W y o m i n g - - 7 D. Smith, Niagara Front ier - - 7 R. Tupta, M i l w a u k e e - - 7

- - continued on page 74


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Columbia Section Sponsors SkilIsUSA Welding Contest

Florence Darlington Technical College hosted the South Carolina Skil lsUSA/VICA State Welding Competition on March 7 and 8. The American Welding Society's Colum- bia Section was a major sponsor o f the event. Pictured at the event are, f rom left, South Carolina SkillsUSA Welding Chairperson and Columbia Section Education Chairper- son Sue Benton, third-place winner Melvin Jackson, second-place winner Shelly Mathe- son, and first-place winner Jeremy VanPut.

Announce Your Section's Activities

Stimulate attendance at your Section's meetings and training programs with free listings in the Section Meeting Calendar column of Society News.

Useful information includes your Section name; activity date, time, and loca- tion; speaker's name, title, affiliation, and subject; and notices of golf outings, semi- nars, contests, and other special Section activities.

If some of your meeting plans are sketchy, send the name and phone number of a person to contact for more information.

Send your new calendar to Susan Campbell, Associate Editor, Welding Journal, AWS, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126; FAX: (305) 443-7404; e-mail: camp [emailprotected]. ,

2002-2003 Member- Get-A-Member Campaign


J. Boyer, Lancaster - - 6 J. Ciaramitaro, North Central F l o r i d a - 6 A. Vidick, Wyoming - - 6 R. Ledford, Jr., Birmingham - - 5 J. Smith, Mobile - - 5 P. Baldwin, Peoria - - 4 T. Buchanan, Mid-Ohio Valley ----4 A. Honegger, LA/Inland Empire - - 4 T. Kienbaum, Colorado - - 4 D. Kowalski, Pittsburgh - - 4 G. Menser, L,4. / Inland Empire - - 4 E. Norman, Ozark - - 4 D. Parker, East Idaho~Montana - - 4 J. Smith, Greater Huntsville - - 4 S. Strader, Portland - - 4 J. Yochum, South Florida - - 4 R. Brown, L.A./Inland Empire - - 3 J. Compton, San Fernando Valley - - 3 R. Felix, Long Bch/Orange County - - 3 L. Frechette, San Francisco - - 3 J. Goodson, New Orleans - - 3 J. Greer, Chicago - - 3 R. Huston, Olympic - - 3 M. Koehler, Milwaukee - - 3 D. Marquis, Ozark - - 3 A. Mattox, Lexington - - 3 J. McCarty, St. Louis - - 3 W. Miller, Jr., New Jersey - - 3 E Ramos, Sacramento - - 3 M. Rice, North Texas - - 3 H. Riviere, South Florida - - 3 T. Shirk, T i d e w a t e r - 3 R. Vann, South Carolina - - 3 •

Submit Your Technical Committee Reports

C o m m i t t e e C h a i r m e n - - We want to recognize the efforts of your committee and inform our readers of its accomplishments. Send a brief pro- file of its activities and recent accom- plishments, along with a member ros- ter and contact numbers, and we will publish it in the Welding Journal's So- ciety News section.

Send your submissions to Susan Campbell, Associate Editor, American Welding Society, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126, Telephone, (305) 443-9353 ext. 244, FAX: (305) 443- 7404, e-mail: campbell@ aws.org. •

B'~m JULY 2003 I

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S - " i usta,n ng Member Company

CESOL Gabino Jimeno 5B Madrid 28026 Spain 34-91-4758307 FAX: 34-91-5005377 e-mail: [emailprotected] www.cesol.es

CESOL, the Spanish Association of Welding and Joining Technologies, is a nonprofit, independent association that serves welding and joining technologies and welcomes the participation of per- sons and firms interested in the objectives of the same.

The association's main activities are assessment; technical assistance; educa-

tion, training, and qualification; standardization and certification; and information and publications. •

AWS Welcomes New Affiliate Member Companies UMS Steel Fabricators, Inc. P.O. Box 3455 Lantana, FL 33465

JMF Precision Welding, Inc. 2415 Harvin Springs Cove Dacula, GA 30019

Carolina Industrial & Welding, Inc. P.O. Box 508 Oak Island, NC 28465

Mag Welding, Inc. 925 S. 7th St. Cousil Bluffs, IA 51501

Ind. Maint. Welding & Machining Co. EO. Box 385 Kingsbury, IN 46345

Rescom Management, Inc. P.O. Box 348 Washington, IN 47501

Belier Fabrication Corp. 66 N. Research Dr. Pueblo West, CO 81007

Van Win Corp. N. 8980 Oneida Rd. Menasha, WI 54952

AWS Welcomes New Supporting Companies New Educational Institutions Attleboro Vocational Technical

High School 100 Rathbun Willard Dr. Attleboro, MA 02703

Bristol-Plymouth Regional Technical High School

940 County St. Taunton, MA 02780-3799

Champlain Valley Educational Services • CV-TEC Division

1585 Military Turnpike Plattsburgh, NY 12901

East Mississippi Community College 8731 S. Frontage Rd. Mayhew, MS 39753

Northeast Metropolitan Regional Vocational High School

100 Hemluck Rd. Wakefield, MA 01880

Texas A&M University Systems Texas Engineering

Extension Service 2002 South Wayside Houston, TX 77023-3905

Welding Research Institute Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 620 014 India

District 5 Director Presents Awards

The District Director Award provides a means for District Directors to recog- nize individuals who have contributed their time and effort to the affairs of their local Section and/or District.

District 5 Director Wayne J. Engeron has nominated the following with this award for 2002-2003.

Greg Engeron Atlanta

Lee Clemens Florida West Coast

Gregory Hofmann North Central Florida

Bill Strate North Florida

Gale Mole South Carolina

Angel Castro Puerto Rico

H. G. Riviere South Florida

George Bower Columbia

Srikanth Kottilingam Florida Space Coast

Neil Prager Palm Beach Section

AWS Membersh ip M e m b e r As of Grades June 1, 2 0 0 3

Sustaining Companies ...................... 424 Supporting Companies ................... 204* Educational Institutions .................. 325 Affiliate Companies ......................... 122 Welding Distributor Companies ....... 53

Total Corporate Members .. 1 ,128

*During the month of March, the Society launched the Welding Distributor Company Membership. Those Supporting Company Members identified as welding distributors were upgraded to this new corporate member category.

Individual Members .................... 44,232 Student Members ......................... 4,182

T o t a l M e m b e r s .. . 4 8 , 4 1 4


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GUIDE TO AWS SERVICES 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126

Phone (800) 443-9353; (888) WELDING FAX (305) 443-7559; Internet: www.aws.org Phone extensions appear in parentheses.

E-Mail addresses available on the AWS Web site.

AWS PRESIDENT Thomas M. Mustaleski BWXT Y-12 LLC EO. Box 2009 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8096

ADMINISTRATION Executive Director Ray W. Shook .......................................... (210)

Deputy Executive Directors Jeffrey R. Hufse), .................................... /264~ John J. McLaughlin ................................ (235)

Corporate Director Volunteer Services Debbie A. Cadavid .................................. (222)

Corporate Director of Quality Management Systems and Human Resources Administration Linda K. Henderson ................................ (298)

Chief Financial Officer Frank R. Tarafa ........................................ (252)

INFORMATION $ERVICES Corporate Director Joe Cilli .................................................... (258)

HUMAN RESOURCES Director Luisa Hernandez ...................................... (266)

DATABASE ADMINISTRATION Corporate Director of Database Administration Jim Lankford ............................................ (214)

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WELDING Information .............................................. (294)

Provides liaison activities involving other pro- fessional societies and standards organizations, nationally and internationally.

GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES Hugh K. Webster Webster, Chamberlain & Bean Washington, D.C. (202) 466-2976 FAX (202) 835-0243

Identifies sources of funding for welding ed- ucation and research & development. Moni- tors legislative and regulatory issues impor- tant to the industry.

WELDING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS COMMITTEE Associate Executive Director Richard L. Alley ...................................... (217)

WELDING INDUSTRY NETWORK (WIN) Associate Executive Director Richard L. Alley ...................................... (217)

CONVENTION & EXPOSITIONS Exhibiting Information .................. (242, 295)

Associate Executive Director of Convention Sales Richard L. Alley ...................................... (217)

Director of Convention & Expositions John Ospina .............................................. (462)

Organizes the week-long annual AWS Interna- tional Welding and Fabncating Exposition and Convention. Regulates space assignments, reg- istration materials, and other Expo activities.

PUBLICATION SERVICES Department Information ........................ (275)

Director Andrew Cullison ...................................... (249)

WELDING JOURNAL Publisher Jeff Weber ................................................ (246)

Editor/Editorial Director Andrew Cullison ...................................... (249)

National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein .......................................... (243)

WELDING HANDBOOK Welding Handbook Editor Annette O'Brien .................................... (303)

Publishes AWS's monthly magazine, the Weld- ing Journal, which provides information on the state of the welding industry, its technology, and Society activities.-Publishes Inspection Trends, the W~lding Handbook and books on general welding sulSjects.

MARKETING AND DESIGN Corporate Director Jeff Weber ................................................ (246)

Plans and coordinates marketing of AWS prod- ucts and services. Responsible for print adver- tising, as well as design and print production of the Welding Journal, Inspection Trends, the an- nual Welding Show Program, and other AWS promotional publications.

I ~ M U N I C d L ~ R E . K I 1 O I 6 Manager Amy Nathan ............................................. (308)

MARKET RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Corporate Director Debrah C. Weir ........................................ (482)

Investigates and/or proposes new products and services. Researches effectiveness of existing programs.

MEMBER SERVICES Department Information ........................ (480)

Associate Executive Director Cassie R. Burrell ...................................... (253)

Director Rhenda A. Mayo ...................................... (260)

Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS headquarters. Informs members about AWS benefits and other activities of interest.

EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Director Christopher B. Pollock ............................ (219)

Information on education products, projects, and programs. Responsible for the S.E.N.S.E. program for welding education, and dissemina- tion of training andeducat ion information on the Web.

CONFERENCES & SEMINARS Director Giselle I. Hufsey ...................................... (278)

Responsible for nat ional and local confer- ences/exhibi t ions and seminars on industry topics ranging from the basics to the leading edge of technology. Organizes CWl, SCWI, and other seminars designed for preparation for certification.

CERTIFICATION OPERATIONS Managing Director Wendy S. Reeve ........................................ (215)

Director Terry Perez ................................................ (470)

Information and application materials on certi- fying welders, welding inspectors, and educators.

.................................................................... (273)

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Director Walter Herrera ........................................ (475)

AWS AWARDS, FELLOWS, AND COUNSELORS Managing Director Wendy S. Reeve ........................................ (215)

Coord ina tes AWS awards and AWS Fellow and Counselor nominees.


Department Information ................................... (340) ManagingDirector Leonard P. Connor .................................. (302) Welding Qualification, Computerization, Tech- nical Activities Committee

Andrew R. Davis ...................................... (466) International Standards Program Manager, Welding in Marine Construction, InspecUon, Mechanical Testing of Welds

Stephen P. Hedrick ...................................... (305) Safety and Health Manager, Metric Practices, Friction Welding

Engineers John L. Gayler .......................................... (472) Structural Welding, Personnel and Facilities Qualification

Rakesh Gupta .......................................... (301) Filler Metals and Allied Products, Instrumenta- tion for Welding, Sheet Metal Welding,

Ed E Mitchell .................................................... (254) Thermal Spray, Iron Castings, Joining Plastics & Composites, Joining of Metals and Alloys, Railroad Welding

Harold P. Ellison ............................. (299) Resistance Welding, High-Energy Beam Weld- ing and Cutting, Oxyfue/Gas Welding & Cut- ting, Automotwe Welding, Aircraft and Aero- space

Peter Howe ...................................... (309) Arc Welding & Cut t ing, Piping & Tubing, Machinery and Equ ipmen t , Robot ics and Automatic Welding, Food Processing Equip- ment

Cynfinithia Jenney .............................................. (304) tions & Symbols, Brazing & Soldering,

Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding, Technical Editing

Senior Manager of Publications, Technical Rosalinda O'Neill .................................... (451 )

AWS publishes more than 160 volumes of maten~al, including standards that are used throughout the industry.

With regard to technical inquiries, oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered. However, such opinions represent only the personal opin- ions of the particular individuals giving them. These individuals do not speak on behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.

WEB SITE ADMINISTRATION Director Keith Thompson ............................................ (414)

I ' b ' ~ JULY 2003 I

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Nominees for Nat ional Off ice

Only Sustaining Members, Members, Honorary Members, Life Members, or Re- tired Members who have been members for a period of at least three years shall be eligible for election as a Director or National Officer.

It is the duty of the National Nominating Committee to nominate candidates for na- tional office. The committee shall hold an open meeting, preferably at the Annual Meet- ing, at which members may appear to present and discuss the eligibility of all candidates.

To be considered a candidate for positions of President, Vice President, Treasurer, or Director-at-Large, the following qualifications and conditions apply:

President: To be eligible to hold the office of President, an individual must have served as a Vice President for at least one year.

Vice President: To be eligible to hold the office of Vice President, an individual must have served at least one year as a Director, o ther than Executive Director and Secretary.

Treasurer: To be eligible to hold the office of Treasurer, an individual must be a member of the Society, o ther than a Student Member, must be frequently available to the National Office, and should be of executive status in business or industry with experience in financial affairs.

Director-at -Large: To be eligible for election as a Director-at-Large, an individ- ual shall previously have held office as Chairman of a Section; as Chairman or Vice Chairman of a standing, technical or special commit tee of the Society; or as District Director.

Interested parties are to send a letter stating which particular office they are seek- ing, including a s ta tement of qualif ications, their willingness and ability to serve if nominated and elected, and 20 copies of their biographical sketch.

This material should be sent to Richard L. Arn, Chairman, National Nominat ing Committee, American Welding Society, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126.

The next meet ing of the National Nominat ing Commit tee is currently scheduled for Apri l 2004. The terms of office for candidates nomina ted at this meet ing will commence June 1, 2005. •

Honorary-Meritorious Awards The Honorary-Meritorious Awards Committee has the duty to make recommendations

regarding nominees presented for Honorary Membership, National Meritorious Certificate, William Irrgang Memorial, and the George E. Willis Awards. These awards are presented in conjunction with the AWS Exposition and Convention held each spring. The descriptions of these awards follow, and the submission deadline for consideration is July 1 prior to the year of presentation. All candidate material should be sent to the attention of John J. McLaughlin, Secretary, Honorary-Meritorious Awards Committee, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126.

Nat iona l Mer i to r ious Cer t i f i ca te Award: This award is given in recognition of the candidate's counsel, loyalty, and de- votion to the affairs of the Society, assis- tance in promoting cordial relations with industry and other organizations, and for the contribution of time and effort on be- half of the Society.

Wil l i am I r rgang M e m o r i a l Award: This award is administered by the American Welding Society and sponsored by The Lin- coln Electric Co. to honor the late William Irrgang. It is awarded each year to the indi- vidual who has done the most to enhance the American Welding Society's goal of advanc- ing the science and technology of welding over the past five-year period.

George E. Will is Award: This award is administered by the American Welding So- ciety and sponsored by The Lincoln Elec- tric Co. to honor George E. Willis. It is awarded each year to an individual for pro- moting the advancement of welding inter- nationally by fostering cooperative partici- pation in areas such as technology trans- fer, standards rationalization, and promo- tion of industrial goodwill.

i n t e r n a t i o n a l Mer i to r ious Cert i f i - cate Award: This award is given in recog- nition of the candidate's significant contri- butions to the worldwide welding industry. This award should reflect "Service to the International Welding Community" in the broadest terms. The awardee is not re- quired to be a member of the American Welding Society. Multiple awards can be given per year as the situation dictates. The award consists of a certificate to be pre- sented at the award's luncheon or at an- other time as appropriate in conjunction with the AWS President's travel itinerary, and, if appropriate, a one-year membership to AWS.

Honorary M e m b e r s h i p Award: An Honorary Member shall be a person of ac- knowledged eminence in the welding pro- fession, or who is accredited with excep- tional accomplishments in the development of the welding art, upon whom the Ameri- can Welding Society sees fit to confer an honorary distinction. An Honorary Mem- ber shall have full rights of membership. •

TELL:WELD FAX: (305) 443-5951

PUBLICATION S A L E S & ORDERS Global Engineering Documents (800) 854-7179 or (303) 397-7956

REPRINTS To order custom reprints of articles in the Welding Journal, contact Denis Mulligan at (800) 259-0470

It is the intent of the American Welding Society to build the Society to the highest qual- ity standards possible. We welcome any sug- gestions you may have.

Please contact any of the staff listed on the previous page or A WS President Thomas M. Mustaleski, BWXT Y-12 LLC, PO. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8096.


The mission of the American Welding Society is to provide quality products and services to our members andthe industry which will advance the science, technolo-

gy and application of materials-joining throughout the world.


Miami, FL 33126 (305) 445-6628

(800) 443-9353, ext. 293 Or e-mail: [emailprotected]

General Information (800) 443-9353, ext. 689

Chairman, Board of Trustees Ronald C. Pierce

Executive Director Ray W. Shook

Director of Development Robert B. Witherell

The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation established to provide support for

educational and scientific endeavors of the American Welding Society. Information on

gift-giving programs is available upon request.


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Magnetic Work Holding Tools Featured in Catalog

Brochure Describes Handheld Ferrite Probe

austenitic stainless steels, and duplex steels.

Fischer Technology, Inc. 750 Marshall Phelps Rd., Windsor, CT 06095


Catalog Features Welding Reels

An eight-page catalog features a vari- ety of magnetic chucks, vises, clamps, holders, grounds, and pickup tools for welding, metalworking, and parts han- dling.

Bunting Magnetics Co. 115 P.O. Box 468, Newton, KS 67114

The Ferritscope ® MP30 is portrayed in a full-color, four-page brochure. Using magnetic induction, the LED-equipped handheld device measures ferrite content from 0 to 80% Fe (0-120 WRC number) in construction steels, welded claddings,

Ferris State University Welding Engineering Technology A ir.qas- Terry Jarvis Memorial Scholarship

"This scholarship will not only help me achieve my educational

goals but my future endeavors in life."

Benjamin C, Woomer The Ohio State University Welding Engineering Donald E Hastings Scholarship

"This scholarship will help me continue to stay involved and focused on learning at

The Ohio State University."

Pennsylvania College of Technology Welding & Fabrication Engineering Technology William B. Howell Memorial Scholarship

"Thank you for investing in me. This award will help further my education in the welding engineering field."

Foundation, Inc. Building Welding's Future through Education

550 N.W. LeJeune Road Miami, FL 33126 Phone: 305-443-9353 Ext. 689

Circle No. 40 on Reader Info-Card

A variety of welding reels are described in catalog format. Products include power and manual rewind reels handling cables up to 400 A, as well as dual arc welding reels and welding gas hose reels.

Hannay Reels 117 553 State Rte. 143, Westerlo, NY 12193

Catalog Describes V-Twin Engines

The 16-page, full-color catalog in- cludes Aegis 20- to 27-hp liquid-cooled V- twin engines. Both vertical- and horizon- tal-shaft models are included, with de- tailed photographs, blueprints, and per- formance specifications.

Kohler Engines 118 444 Highland Dr., Kohler, WI 53044

Er~:ll JULY 2003

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CD-ROM Presents Hardfacing Information

The third edition of a free interactive guide to hardfacing has been released. The Express 3 CD now includes stainless steel, nickel, and cobalt alloys, with a guide to their selection, cost calculations, and application tips.

Stoody Company 101 S. Hanley Rd., St. 600, St. Louis, MO 63105


Brochure Descr ibes Laser Appl icat ions

on casting, melting, joining, fabricating, and available forms and shapes.

Belmont Metals Inc. 330 Belmont Ave., Brooklyn, IVY 11207


Specif icat ions Sheet for Welding Blanket Publ ished

Industry Manual on Portable Pump Safety Avai lable in Spanish

A color flyer describing Velvet Shield ® welding blankets includes sizes and per- formance data on a fabric that can with- stand temperatures up to 3000°E

Steiner Industries 122 5801 N. Tripp Ave., Chicago, IL 60646

An illustrated manual on safe opera- tion of submersible and motor-driven con- tractors' pumps at job sites has been trans- lated into Spanish and published by a manufacturers ' organization, in order to reduce injuries among Hispanic workers.

Association of Equipment Manufacturers 123

111 E. Wisconsin Ave., Ste. 1000, Milwaukee, WI 53202

- - continued on page 81

A full-color, four-page brochure out- lines material processing applications of high-power, direct diode lasers, including welding, heat treating, cladding, brazing, metal bending, curing, and paint stripping.

Nuvonyx Inc. 120 3753 Pennridge Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044

Aluminum Data Sheet Publ ished

Ralmawt Aluminum

~ c m

Data SheetAl-1 describes the benefits and general applications of aluminum, as well as its mechanical, physical, and chem- ical properties. It also offers information

Welding breaks down galvanizing in metal. That's why you need to make sure your welds are protected against corro- sion by coating them with ZRC Cold Galvanizing Compound. Only ZRC has an industry-leading 95% zinc content to provide true galvanic protection. Available in brush on, spray on or aerosol application.

(800) 831-3275 www.zrcworldwide.com


Circle No. 35 on Reader Info-Card


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Hobart Institute Names Scott to Board of Directors

The Hobart Insti- tute of Welding Tech- nology has named Ron Scott to the board of directors. Scott has been with the institute since 1975 and currently serves as vice presi-

Ron Scott dent and general manager. This ap- pointment serves to

provide the seven-member board with a balance shared by operating and nonop- erating members.

ProMotion Controls Appoints CFO

ProMotion Controls Inc., Medina, Ohio, has appointed John P. Neal as chief financial officer for the company's western operations, including North America, Cen- tral America, and South America. Over the past two decades, Neal has founded several companies and organizations and has worked as part of several successful turn- around teams. Most recently, he formed CXO Associates. Neal holds a bachelor of science degree in accounting from San Diego State University.

Battelle Announces Executive Vice President

Battelle announced that Bill Madia, director of Oak Ridge National Labora-

tory (ORNL) for the past three years, will leave Oak Ridge and return to Battelle's world headquarters in Columbus, Ohio, as executive vice president of laboratory operations. Battelle and the University of Tennessee operate ORNL for the Depart- ment of Energy.

Madia began his Battelle career in 1975 as a nuclear chemistry researcher and has held numerous important positions includ- ing president of Battelle Technology Inter- national, general manager of the Battelle Project Management Division, director of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and director of ORNL. Madia, who in 1999 was named Laboratory Director of the Year by the Federal Laboratory Consortium, re- ceived his B.S. and M.S. degrees in chem- istry from Indiana University of Pennsylva- nia and his Ph.D. in nuclear chemistry from Virginia Tech.

Bosch Rexroth Announces Leadership Changes

Bosch Rexroth Corp., Hoffman Es- tates, II1., announced three changes in its leadership.

Steven D. Roberts was named senior vice president-corpo- rate finance. Roberts

Steven D. Roberts" joined the company as divisional con- troller in 1994. He

most recently served as vice president and general manager of the Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies business unit.

Ernst Iseli assumed the role of vice president and general manager of the



(810) 227-3251 www.cor-met.com

FAX: (810) 227-9266

Circle No. 15 on Reader Info-Card

Ernst lseli Bill Demuth

company's Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies business unit. Earlier this year, he was named vice president-mar- keting for the business unit and previously served as its director-sales and marketing.

Bill Demuth was named director of controlling and administration. Demuth, who joined the company in 1998, will add human resources and overall commercial responsibility to his current role as divi- sion controller for the Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies business unit.

SAW Pipes Names General Manager

SAW Pipes, USA, Inc., has named C. P. "Chuck" Woodruff corporate general manager. In this position, Woodruff is re- sponsible for the operations of the facil- ity located in Baytown, Tex.

Magnatech Appoints Sales Manager

Don Brown [AWS] has joined Magnat- ech Limited Partner- ship, East Granby, Conn., as East Coast regional manager. Prior to joining Mag- natech, Brown had spent three years in

Don Brown sales at Liburdi Di- metrics and ten years

at Applied Energy Systems.

Steiner Industries Names Manager

Steiner Industries, Inc., Chicago, IlL, has named Debbie Ralson-McHugh sales and marketing manager responsible for the welding distribution market channel. Ralson-McHugh's previous experience in- cludes 12 years with Singer Safety Company.

I!:[,!1 JULY 2003 I

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Lepel Appoints Sales Manager

Lepel Corp., Edgewood, N.Y., has an- nounced the appointment of Richard Detty [AWS] to induction sales manager for its induction heating division. Detty brings to the position more than 20 years of induction heating experience. His pre- vious employers include Lindberg/Cycle- Dyne and Ameritherm Inc. He is a mem- ber of the American Welding Society, So- ciety of Manufacturing Engineers, and the American Society of Materials.


Nelson C. Wall

Nelson C. Wall

Nelson C. Wall [AWS] died on May 12 at Baptist Hospital in Miami, Fla.

Wall received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology, At- lanta, Ga. He received his Ph.D. in po- litical science from the Universidad de La Habana, Havana, Cuba. He also at- tended the Industrial Development In- stitute at the University of Oklahoma.

In 1948, Wall began his profes- sional career with United Railways of Havana and Regia Warehouses, Ltd., Havana, Cuba, as a draftsman and jun- ior engineer. He later joined Barrenos y Equipos as a service engineer and chief mechanical engineer. At Ferro- carriles Occidentalles, he was a con- sultant, chief engineer, and assistant to the president.

In 1960, Wall was owner and oper- ator of Ma's Old Fashion Bottling Co. in Scranton, Pa. In 1964, he joined the

Georgia Institute of Technology as as- sistant research engineer and then as research engineer. Wall remained with the Georgia Institute of Technology from 1964 to 1969, when he was named head of the International Education Services Section. From 1970 to 1976, Wall served as head of the Research Services Branch; from 1976 to 1977, he was head of the International Devel- opment Branch; and from 1978 to 1980, he served as chief of the International Program Division. From 1980 to 1981, Wall was director and principal re- search engineer, Engineering Experi- ment Station.

In 1981, Wall joined the American Welding Society as director of educa- tion. In 1985, he was named to the po- sition of deputy executive director. Upon his retirement in 1996, Wall was named AWS deputy executive director emeritus and served as chief operations officer of AWServices.

Wall was a member of numerous professional and technical associations and has had more than 100 reports, publications, and handbooks published under the sponsorship of the United States Agency for International Devel- opment (USAID), Organization of American States (OAS), U.S. Depart- ment of State, Georgia Institute of Technology, Solar American, Hercules Powder Co., and the International Rice Research Institute.

Wall is survived by his mother, Zoila, and his wife, Cary.

Rao Kadiyala

Ran Kadiyala [AWS] died suddenly on May 18.

Kadiyala was technical vice president of Techalloy Company, Inc.'s, Welding Di- vision. He worked for the company for al- most 22 years and was well-known and highly respected throughout the welding and metals industry. Kadiyala, who was very active in and served for many years on various AWS technical committees, re- cently presented a technical paper he coauthored at the 2003 Interwire Trade Exposition in Atlanta.

Want to be a Welding Journal

Advertiser? For information, contact

Rob Saltzstein at (800) 443-9353, ext. 243,

or via e-mail at [emailprotected].

High-Temperature Brazing Book Published

A primer on brazing by nickel-based brazing pioneer Robert L. Peaslee, Braz- ing Footprints: Case Studies in High-Tem- perature Brazing, includes 120 case stud- ies and is available for $130. Ordering in- formation is available at www.wallcol- monoy, com.

Wall Colmonoy Corp. 124 30261 Stephenson Hwy., Madison Heights, MI 48071

Mass Spectrometer Catalog Released

:,r:: ,Mass spectrometer ~,: ] 2002-2004 ~ . . 5 " .

The 2002-2004 Mass Spectrometer Cat- alog includes 116 pages of information on products as well as informative funda- mentals of mass spectrometry theory and practical applications.

Pfeiffer Vacuum, Inc. 24 Trafalgar Sq., Nashua, NH 03063



To order custom reprints of articles in

WeMing Journal, contact Denis Mulligan at

(800) 259-0470 FAX: (717) 481-7677

or via e-mail at info @reprintdept. com



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4th AWS Conference on Weld Cracking: Causes and Cures

September 9-10 New Orleans, Louisiana

Doubletree Hotel New Orleans - Lakeside

It all started during World War II, when U.S. shipyards went wild fabricating welded ships for the war effort. A small number of these ships experienced cracks in their welds, and the newspa- pers and radio stations let the country know what was going on in some of these yards. Was the news blown out of proport ion? Perhaps. But welding researchers looked into the matter with in- tensity, and much useful information was accumulated.

Those days of mass-produced ships are over, but the phenom- ena involving weld cracking are still apparent to some degree in many job shops, on pipelines, in pressure vessels, in offshore plat- forms, in aircraft engines, on truck chassis, in skyscrapers--wher- ever welding is used to join components together. Modern sci- ence is helping industry test for these cracks and introduce a host of preventive cures.

Welding in the Oil and Gas Industries October 7-8

Houston, Texas Hilton Garden Inn Houston

One of the'strongest segments of the U.S. economy is the en- ergy industry, which is best exemplified by oil and natural gas. The pressure upon industry is intense to deliver these fuels to the marketplace as efficiently and as economically as possible.

Welding plays an extremely important role in this scenario. Therefore, the pressure is also on the welding industry to keep

the cross-country pipelines in continuous operation, to make sure badly needed fuels are retr ieved from offshore sources, and to maintain adequate production from the refineries.

2nd Conference on Nondestructive Testing of Welds

December 2-3 Orlando, Florida

Grosvenor Resort in the Walt Disney World Resort

New developments in nondestructive testing are rapidly being introduced. This conference will help you keep pace with new technologies such as thermographic inspection of resistance spot welds, alternating current field measurement, time-of-flight dif- fraction, and phased array inspection. A panel of three promi- nent engineers will lead a timely discussion on the "Status of NDT Certification Programs" to bring this two-day program to a close. Whether you are directly or indirectly involved with weld inspection - - often described as welding's right arm - - you'll ben- efit from this helpful, educational conference.

For further information, contact Conferences, American Welding Society, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126. Telephone: (800) 443-9353 ext. 449 or (305) 443-9353 ext. 449; FAX: (305) 648-1655. Visit the Conference Department home page, www.aws.org, for upcoming conferences and registra- tion information.

Call for Papers The American Welding Society announces a Call for Papers for the 2004 Professional Program to be held as part of Welding Show 2004 on April 6-8, 2004, in Chicago, Ill.

Submissions should fall into one of the following three categories and will be accepted only in a specific format. Individuals interested in participating should contact Dorcas Troche, Manager, Conferences and Seminars, via e-mail at [emailprotected] for specific details. Deadline for submission of papers is Thursday, July 31, 2003.

Technical/Research Oriented • New science or research. • Selection based on technical merit. • Emphasis is on previously unpublished work in science or engineering relevant to welding, joining, and allied processes. • Preference will be given to submittals with clearly communicated benefit to the welding industry.

Applied Technology • New or unique applications. • Selection based on technical merit. • Emphasis is on previously unpublished work that applies known principles of joining science or engineering in unique ways. • Preference will be given to submittals with clearly communicated benefit to the welding industry.

Education • Welding education at all levels. • Emphasis is on education/training methods and their successes. • Papers should address overall relevance to the welding industry.

I I :P, i l J U L Y 2 0 0 3 I

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to present Brazing and Soldering Papers at the AWS International Brazing and Soldering Symposium

Chicago, Illinois April 6-8, 2004

The American Welding Society's C3 Committee on Brazing and Soldering invites you to present your outstanding and unpublished work in the field of brazing and soldering development, research, or application, at the International Brazing and Soldering Symposium. This event will be held in conjunction with the Society's Annual Convention, Chicago, April 6-8, 2004.

Please submit your abstract(s) by July 15, 2003, to be screened by the C3 Papers Selection Committee for the 2004 conference.

Each extended abstract should be sufficiently descriptive to give a clear idea of the content of the proposed paper. In any case, it must contain not less than 500 - - but preferab ly not more than 1000 - - words. Repeated references to a company and/or the use of advertisem*nts, trade names, trademarks (or expressions considered as such by the industry) are not permitted. Suitable generic terms must be used, in accordance with those standardized by the American Welding Society, where applicable.

Papers may be considered for publication in the Weld ing Journal regardless of acceptance for presentation at the conference.

Topics of particular interest are applied technologies of (1) automotive assemblies, (2) machine tools, (3) nuclear assemblies, (4) aerospace structures, (5) electronic equipment, (6) food processing equipment, (7) pressure vessels, and (8) biomedical components. Of special interest is the application of brazing to titanium, aluminum and other base metals, including brazement strength data.

In addition, papers pertaining to new research and development on (1) brazing or soldering filler metals, (2) brazing filler metal/base metal interaction, (3) nuclear properties of brazements, (4) electronic properties of brazements, (5) corrosion of brazements, (6) strength of brazed joints, (7) active brazing fluxes, (8) industrial soldering applications, (9) testing of brazed or soldered joints, and (10) brazing and soldering of ceramics are being sought.

Finally, papers dealing with educational and informative aspects of production, engineering, research and metallurgy are welcomed if the subject falls within the scope of the session.

Please fill out the Author Application Form (reverse side), attach abstract thereto and return to AWS, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. To assure your paper's consideration for the 2004 conference, your abstracts must be postmarked no later than July 15, 2003.



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Please complete this form legibly. This completed form is to accompany the 500-1000 word summary described on the back. Please mai l to AWS, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

Author's Name Check how addressed: Dr. [] other Title or position Company or Organization Mailing address: City S t a t e Z i p / P o s t a l Code Country Area/Country Code Telephone FAX e-mail

For jo in t authors, list names and FULL M A I L I N G ADDRESSES of al l authors (attach list i f necessary): 1st Name Telephone: Area Number FAX Title or position Company or Organization Mailing address: City S t a t e 2nd Names Title or position Mailing address:

Zip/Postal Code Country Telephone: A r e a N u m b e r

Company or Organization FAX

City State Zip/Postal Code Country

PROPOSED TITLE (10 words or less):

SUBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS: 1. Classify your paper by choosing one of the appropriate boxes in each of the following two groups (a) and (b):

a. O Applied Technology CJ Education [] Research Oriented b. [] Original Contribution [] Progress Report CJ Review [] Tutorial

2. Brazing process(es) used:

3. Materials used:

4. The main emphasis is more [] process oriented [] materials oriented

5. Industries this paper most applies to are:

6. KEY WORDS: Please rank the top four in order of importance (i.e., 1 = most important;4 =4th):

S ta in less Steels S h e e t Steels A l u m i n u m Alloys C o p p e r Alloys T i t a n i u m Alloys N i - B a s e Alloys D i s s i m i l a r Materials S t r u c t u r a l Ceramics

B r a z i n g Filler Metals B r a z i n g Fluxes B r a z i n g Processes Sol id-State Processes S o l d e r i n g L a s e r Processes F u r n a c e Brazing D i f f u s i o n Brazing

F i x t u r i n g H e a t Exchangers Wet t ing /Wet ted Joints M e c h a n i c a l Properties B r a z e d joint Microstructure T e s t i n g Methods

O t h e r

(for AWS use only)

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~ American Welding Society Founded in 191"~9 to Advanc'~e t~e Technology and Application of Welding

W ELDIHG IH THE OIL AHD GAS IHDUSTRIES October 7-8, 2003 Houston, Texas AWS can show you the latest trends in welding for the oil and gas industries at this important conference, October 7-8 in Houston, Texas, It is important to keep current with the technological developments in your industry. You can do that by attending this informative conference on welding in the oil and gas industries, The following key topics will be discussed:

• fifoess-for-Service Assessments Using AM 579

• Orbital 6TA Welding a Modified 316 Stainless Pipe

• Welding the Modified 9 Chmmbim/ 1 Molybdenum Steel

• ExPiration Weld Cladding for Refinery and UPSbonm APPliCefion •

• Prapm'des of Matching HHOr Metals for Supemiarton~ Stainless Steel Pipelines

• Nondes~uctive Testing of Welds In the Petrochemical Industry

Recommended Practice and Welding Guidelines for the Chemical, OH, and Gas industries - API 582

How the Combined Skills of Wekling and Diving Are Used to Take-on Suusea Fabrication

Development Efforts for a New Grade of Chrome Alloy Steel for Use In the Off and Gas IndusMes

Welding of Small-Diameter Stainless Steel and High- Alloy Tubing for Cfl~cal Subson Applications

VefUcel Plate co*ke Orion Technology

Developments in Pipeline Girth Welding Reliability Assessment

The PrevenHon of Cracking hi High- Strength Steel Pipelines

Welding HOaw-WaH Stainless Pipe Using Seamless Cored-Wire Filler Metal

Advances in Hox-comd Arc Welding for Pipeline Welding

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CWI PREPARATORY Guarantee - Pass or Repeat FREE!


HEAD START! Pascagoula, MS Aug. 16-22 * Oct 11-17

Houma, LA Sept. 13-19 MON-FRI COURSE (5 DAYS)

GET READY - FAST PACED COURSE! Pascagoula, MS Aug. 18-22 • Oct. 13-17

Houston, TX July 14-18 Houma, LA Sept. 15-19

Test follows on Saturday at same facility CONTINUE YOUR EDUCATION WITH

Applications of Visual Inspection Advanced Visual Inspection

ASME Quality Control RT Film Interpretation

Basic Welding Processes MT/PT/RT/UT LEVEL I & II

Welding Procedure Fundamentals **Al l classes at your location or ours**

For our entire class schedule, call or e-mail 1-800-489-2890

or [emailprotected]

ATTENTION Welding Engineering

Professional Engineers (PE)

If you possess a current PE license in welding engineering, you may be eligible to receive the IIW Interna- tional Welding Engineer diploma. For more information, contact Jeff Hufsey at [emailprotected].

The American Welding Society seeks an experienced pro- fessional to oversee marketing and promotion of a broad spectrum of association products and services, including advertising and exhibition space sales, conferences and seminars, certification programs, tradeshow attendance, educational foundation fundrais- ing, and publication sales. Must be able to develop strong customer-driven marketing programs and maintain an effective internal system for measuring pro- gram effectiveness.

Bachelor's degree and 10 years' marketing experience required. Prior assodation with the welding industry is a definite plus, as is familiarity with graphic design, print production, and list development and management.

Interested parties should send a resume and a letter outlining interest to:

~ AmericanWelding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Rd. Miami, FL 33126

Attn.: Luisa Hernandez Personnel Department [emailprotected]

AWS - An Equal Opportunity Employer Visit our Website at www.aws.org.


Large manufacturer of industrial gas apparatus and industrial flow control equipment seeks experi- enced reps calling on welding sup- ply industry. Large protected terri- tories and great commission rates. Fax resume to 909 612-1927.

WELDING INSTRUCTOR Full-time faculty position at Sheridan College, a two-year community col- lege at the foot of the beautiful Big Horn Mountains in northern Wyoming. Teach a variety of welding and welding-related classes. Bachelor's degree required, Master's preferred. Requires CWI/MSHA, and other pro- fessional welding certifications. Teaching experience preferred. For application, contact Sheridan College, Employee Services Office, P.O. Box 1500, Sheridan, WY 82801. (307) 674-6446, ext. 6218/6373. Duties to begin no later than August 2003. EOE

AWS JobFind

Post Jobs. @ Find Jobs.

www.aws.org/jobfind Job categories for welders, engineers, inspectors, and more than 17

other materials joining industry classifications/

m:[~ JULY 2003

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J U S T IN! Jet l ine " 1 9 9 7 " LWS 144 12 f t horn (O.D.) seamer . N e w Pandjiris Posit ioners up to 6 0 0 0 Ibs. Manipulators up to 12 x 15 ft on cars. "1998" Pandjiris 2-head, seam-tracked, 14-ft box beam fab sys- tem. More than 100 positioners up to 75 tons. Head/tailstocks, turnta- bles up to 60 tons. Longitudinal seamers from 12 in. to 18 ft, turning rolls up to 400 tons, circular weld systems, welding lathes, arc machines, and other orbital welding machines.

Everything you need for Arc Welding Systems!


W e b site: www.weldplus.com e-mail: [emailprotected] WELD PLUS, INC., CINCINNATI, OHIO

800-288 -9414 Jack, Pete, Paul, or Dennis Fax:


We buy and sell WELDING RODS & WIRE


Ell Excess Welding Alloys, Inc. A division of Weld Wire Company Inc.

800-523-1266 FAX 610-265-7806 www.weldwire.net

m m A a m * m m m m

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Business 4 Sale P.O. Box 893 East Greenwich, RI 02818

All types, sizes It Quantities

Call us first/

800-523-2791 PA: 610-825-1250

FAX: 610-825-1553

ATTENTION! Welding Equipment Sales Personnel. We pay you for finding us good used

welding systems, seamers, positioners, manipulators, turning rolls, etc.

We will buy your customers' trade-ins.

WELD PLUS, INC. 1-800-288-9414


Welding Positioners Tank Turning Rolls

Manipulators Subarc Welding Machines

Plasma Cutting Machines Sales • Rental ° Rebuild

Always Buying • Always Selling 800-218-9620 713-943-8032 sales @ mitrowskiwelding.com www.mitrowskiwelding.com

RED-D-ARC Quality-Checked" Used Equipment


An Excellent Selection of Used Welding and Positioning Equipment for Sale

1-800-245-3660, ~rv lce Centers Across North Amerlca~


,~ S ~

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www.mitr0wskiwelding,c0m 800-218-9620 713-943-8032


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A b i c o r B i n z e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . b i n z e l - a b i c o r . c o m .......... I B C

A e l e c t r o n i c Bonding, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . a b i u s a . n e t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Atlas W e l d i n g A c c e s s o r i e s , I n c . . . . . w w w . a t l a s w e l d . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9

A W S Certification Department .... w w w . a w s . o r g .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 13

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A W S Foundation Dept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . a w s . o r g .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 , 7 8

A W S M e m b e r s h i p S e r v i c e s ............ w w w . a w s . o r g ...... 12, 22 , 24 , 26 , 53

Bohler W e l d i n g .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . b t w u s a . c o m .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

C e n t e r l i n e L i m i t e d .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . c n t r l i n e . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R S

C K W o r l d w i d e , I n c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . c k w o r l d w i d e . c o m .... . . . . . . . . . . 2 7

C o l l e g e o f O c e a n e e r i n g .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . c o o . e d u .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

C o r - M e t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . c o r - m e t . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 80

C - S p e c .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . w e l d o f f i c e . c o m .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6

Divers Academy International ...... w w w . d i v e r s a c a d e m y . c o m .......... 12

E S A B W e l d i n g and Cutting P r o d . w w w . e s a b n a . c o m .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O B C

H & M P i p e B e v e l i n g M a c h i n e C o . w w w . h m p i p e . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Jackson P r o d u c t s , I n c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . j a c k s o n p r o d u c t s . c o m .......... 5

K o b e l c o W e l d i n g o f A m e r i c a , I n c . w w w . k o b e l c o w e i d i n g . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . 1

K o i k e A r o n s o n , I n c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . k o i k e . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3

L A - C O I n d u s t r i e s , I n c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . l a c o . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

R e a d y W e l d e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . r e a d y w e l d e r . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6

S e l e c t A r c , I n c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . s e l e c t - a r c . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . I F C

T h e r m a l A r c / T h e r m a d y n e ... . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . t h e r m a l a r c . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

T h e r m a l D y n a m i c s / T h e r m a d y n e . . w w w . t h e r m a l - d y n a m i c s . c o m ...... 7

T r e g a s k i s s W e l d i n g P r o d u c t s .... . . . . w w w . t o u g h g u n . c o m ..... . . . 25 , 27 , 2 9

W e l d A c a d e m y .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . w e l d a c a d e m y . c o m .... . . . . . . . . . . 3 9

W e l d A i d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . w e l d a i d . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8

W e l d E n g i n e e r i n g C o . I n c .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . w e l d e n g i n e e r i n g . c o m ........ 2 8

W e l d H u g g e r , L . L . C .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w w w . w e l d h u g g e r . c o m ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5

Z R C W o r l d w i d e I n n o v a t i v e T e c h . . w w w . z r c w o r l d w i d e . c o m ..... . . . . . . . . . 79

I F C = I n s i d e F r o n t C o v e r

I B C = I n s i d e B a c k C o v e r

O B C = O u t s i d e B a c k C o v e r

R S = R e a d e r S e r v i c e C a r d

2nd Conference on the Nondestructive Testing of Welds, Grosvenor Resort, Orlando, Florida December 2-3, 2003 Because technology is constantly changing, it is imperative to keep up to date on the most recent developments in nondestructive testing of welds. This second AWS conference on NDT is designed to be an educational tool for all those involved with weld inspection, either directly or indirectly. Among the newer technologies to be discussed are: thermographic inspection of resistance spot welds, alternating current field measurement, time-of-flight diffraction, and phased array inspection. The two-day program will be brought to a rousing finish with a timely panel discussion entitled, "Status of NDT Certification Programs." Three prominent engineers from this industry will lead the panel discussion. The following important topics will be discussed:

• Improprieties in Nondestructive Testing • Real-Time Weld Monitoring for Defect Prevention • Remote Visual Inspection and Measurement

of Welds • Thermographic Inspection of Resistance

Spot Welds • Auditing NDT of Pipeline Welds • Weld Inspection Data Management • High Speed Digital Imaging for Today's Industry • The Alternating Field Measurement Technique

Receives a New Standard • Interpretation Issues Regarding NDT According

to AWS D1.1

• Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD), a Reliable Technique for the Detection and Sizing of Discontinuities

• Applications for Industrial Phased Array • New Ultrasonic Weld Inspection Techniques • A Comparison of the Various Power Utility Industry

Construction Codes

JULY 2003 1


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~ Amer_ ican W . elding Societ. y Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science, Technology and Application of Welding

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SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, JULY 2003 Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

A Proposed S-N Curve for Welded Ship Structures

A hot-spot stress-based design S-N curve for fillet weld joints takes into account the effects of static cargo loads


ABSTRACT. Static loads on ship struc- tures induced by cargo loading cause rela- tively higher stress histories at welded joints compared with cyclic loads induced by waves. Due to these static loads, the ini- tial tensile residual stresses at welded joints are shaken-down to a great extent by the elastoplastic deformation behavior of the material. The redistribution of initial welding residual stresses by the preload was evaluated using finite element (FE) analysis and compared with the results ob- tained from an ordinary sectioning method for three types of welded speci- mens, which were all typical fillet weld joints in ship structures. Fatigue tests were performed to evaluate the effects of shaken-down residual stresses on the fa- tigue strength of the fillet weld joints. The effects of the tensile mean stress on the fa- tigue strength of pre loaded specimens were investigated as well. From the results of fatigue tests, an empirical formula of S-N curves, taking into account the effect of the arbitrary preload and mean stress associated with static loads, was derived based on the hot-spot stress range. The standard deviation between the formula and fatigue test results was calculated. With 2.35% of probability of failure, "HD S-N Curve (Hot spot-stress based Design S-N Curve)" was proposed.


Tensile residual stresses generally exist up to the yielding point of the material around welded joints. Much research has been carried out on the effects of residual stresses on fatigue strength. Most of this research work, however, has concentrated

S. W. KANG is with Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea. W. S. K1M is with the Hull Initial Design Department, Shipbuilding Division, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ulsan, South Korea.

on the effects of initial welding residual stresses. Only a few research works were performed on the effect of redistribution of residual stresses caused by the actual service condit ion on fatigue strength (Refs. 1, 2).

Static loads on a ship structure, in- duced either by water pressure before ser- vice or by cargo pressure during the first laden voyage, cause relatively higher stress history at welded joints, compared with cyclic loads induced by waves during service. Scantlings of main ship structure are generally determined under the rule requirements of classification societies (Refs. 3-5), and the values of allowable nominal stress by design static loads are in the range of approximately 50-70% of the yield points of materials. In ship structure, local stress concentration is inevitable due to structural geometry or discontinuity. In most cases, the fatigue damage occurs at these stress-concentrated points. Due to static loads, the initial tensile residual stresses at welded joints, where fatigue strength is concerned, are expected to be shaken-down to a great extent by the elastoplastic deformation behavior of the material, although the behavior of global structure is elastic. Ship structural mem- bers are subsequently exposed to cyclic loads during service. It is therefore imper- ative to verify the fatigue characteristics related to the redistr ibuted residual stresses to assess the fatigue strength of the ship structure properly.


Residual Stress Preload Effect Mean Stress Effect Hot-Spot Stress S-N Curve Fatigue Analysis

It was also reported that the effect of cyclic stress ratio (minimum stress/maxi- mum stress) on the fatigue strength of a structure under the initial residual stress condition by welding was minor (Ref. 6). Therefore, the mean stress effect on the fatigue strength of structures is minor, based on exposure to cyclic loads under as- welded conditions. However, the effect of a certain level of mean stress associated with static loads of cargo or ballasting would not be minor in the case of ship structures with residual stresses shaken- down by fairly large static loads, when ex- posed to cyclic loads induced by waves.

In this research work, the redistribu- tion of residual stresses by the static pre- load was evaluated using FE analysis and compared with the results obtained from an ordinary sectioning method for three types of small specimens: a non-load-car- rying box fillet weldment (Model 1); a weldment with gussets on the plate edge (Model 2); and a weldment with padding plate (Model 3). These were all typical fil- let weld joints in a ship structure. Fatigue tests were performed to evaluate the ef- fect of shaken-down residual stresses on the fatigue strength of as-welded speci- mens and that of statically preloaded ones. The effects of the tensile mean stress on the fatigue strength of preloaded speci- mens were investigated as well.

Distribution of Residual Stress

Details of the specimens are illustrated in Fig. 1. The welding condition for speci- mens is listed in Table 1. The specimens were fabricated in accordance with actual shipbuilding workmanship and practice. The material for the specimens was ship structural mild steel of grade A. The major chemical composit ion and mechanical properties of the steel are listed in Table 2. Although actual yielding stresses of the material were about 300 MPa, classifica-


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i i~ii~ i ~ iii i!!i ~i~i ¸̧ i


(a) Model I (b) Model 2 (c) Model 3

Unit : m m

Fig. 1 - - Details o f specimen.

• , ,

(a) Model I (b) Model 2 I t ) Model 3

Fig. 3 - - Fini te e l emen t m o d e l s f o r s imu la t ion o f res idual stress dis-


Condition Preload (nominal stress) Load pattern




117.5 M Pa

199.75 MPa

. 5 G n

~ .85c~o

Fig. 2 - - Static preload conditions.

Table 1 - - Welding Condition

Current 250 A Voltage 26 V Speed 30 cm/min Method FCAW

tion societies define the design yield stress of Oo as 235 MPa for ship structural mild steel. In this regard, hereinafter, the de- sign yield stress oo is defined as 235 MPa according to the classification societies' specification.

Distributions of residual stresses of the specimen under three statically pre- loaded conditions, which are illustrated in detail in Fig. 2, were evaluated by FE analysis and measured by a sectioning method.

Condition 1 was the as-welded condi- tion; condition 2 had a preload inducing 0.5 oo of tensile nominal stress; condition 3 had a preload inducing 0.85 Oo of tensile nominal stress.

Thermo-elastoplast ic FE analyses were performed using the models shown in Fig. 3 to simulate residual stress distri- butions by welding, and redistributions of residual stresses by preloads. One-eighth of the specimen was modeled imposing symmetric boundary conditions. Elements were 8-noded solids, and the element sizes around the weld toe were about one- fourth of the plate thickness. Mechanical properties of the stress-strain relation and material hardening due to welding were obtained from the tensile test and the

Table 2 - - Major Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel

Chemical Composition (%) C Si Mn P

0.13-0.17 0.15-0.18 0.46-0.65 0.012-0.019

Mechanical Properties Yield Stress (MPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Elongation (%)

290-299 427-457 34-36

hardening test. After the heat input, which was calculated from the welding condi- tion, was fluxed to the weld bead elements, the distributions of the temperature were calculated by a transient thermal conduc- tion analysis ignoring heat convection and radiation to the air. With the calculated distributions of the temperature with re- spect to time, a thermo-elastoplast ic analysis was carried out to simulate initial welding residual stress distributions. From the status of the initial welding residual stresses, the static preloads depicted in Fig. 2 were applied to models to simulate redistributions of residual stresses by an elastoplastic analysis.

Initial residual stresses by welding and redistr ibuted residual stresses by pre- loads were measured as well by using an ordinary sectioning method. Two-dimen- sional strain gauges with a gauge length of 1 mm were bonded on both sides of the main plates at 2-ram, 12-mm and 22-mm distances from the weld toe. Then, by sec- tioning the main plates around the strain gauges into small cubes, released strains were measured and converted into resid-

ual stresses using the following relation- ship.

G . . . . = l _ ~ ( A g x + VAEy)


where, Ox, re s is the residual stress in the longitudinal direction of the specimen, Ae x is the released strain in the longitudinal di- rection of the specimen, Aey is the released strain in the transverse direction of the specimen, v is Poisson's ratio (= 0.3), and Eis Young's modulus (= 2.06 x 10 ~ MPa).

The results of the FE analysis and the measurement for initial welding residual stress distribution and redistributed resid- ual stresses by preloads are shown in Fig. 4. According to the results of FE analysis, the initial welding residual stresses near the weld toe of the main plate almost reach the yield stress of the material or more. The initial welding residual stress decreases from a tensile preload. The big- ger the preload becomes, the more the residual stress decreases. Magnitudes of shaken-down residual stresses obtained by

li[,"P.l$-'tl JULY 2003

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• ...... : , : W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H



~, 300 n




_ ~ _ _ ~ . . . . . . .

\ -_ - - , , ; . -~ ._ _

IBO ~ o . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q

--SS_ .~.SIS. j .............. t .............. l .......... I ~ Measurement- As welded , n Measurement- 50% Preload

- -' o Measurement- 85% Preload ! ~ Analysis - As welded

-- E - - - - Analysis - 50% Preload - - --Analysis-- 85% P reload . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ r ' t ....

10 15 20 25 30 Distance from weld toe (mm)

(a) Model !





! 100



[---4 Measured-Aswelded / / . . . . . . . . . / a Measured-50%Preload [-I

' _. j~__ | o Measured-S5%Preload [1 ] ~ A n a l y s i s - As welded 11

. . . . . . . . O I - - - - Analysis- 50% Preload ~-I

- ; , . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

• ---21-..-IT 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Distance from weld toe (mm)

(b) Model 2





t # ,oo i




A x & - - " - 2 - -



Measured - As welded o Measured - 50% Preload

. . . . o Measured - 85% Preload - - A n a l y s i s - As welded - - - - Analysis - 50% Preload

. . . . . . . .._. - 7- A~lysisL _85% Preload J


_ i

l 0 15 20 25 Distance from weld toe (ram)

(c) Model 3

Fig. 4 - - Residual stress distribution along centerline surface o f main plate: Models 1, 2, 3.




Prcload = 0 M . . . . . . . . - 0 A A A A A S

l V V V

0.50o Prcload = 0.5 of,

M ........... 0 ~ A A A 1,6s V V V

Preload : 0.85 on Mean stress = 0


Preload = 0.85 o0 0.8500

/ V v v~.s . . . .

Prdoad = 0.85 rr 0 (I.85Oo [ / ~ S

M . . . . . . . 0.85 oh, A ~

Fig. 5 - - Fatigue test conditions o f preload and mean stress.

m e a s u r e m e n t were smaller than those ob- ta ined by FE analysis, but the dec remen t of the initial residual stress f rom the pre- load was clearly observed at the weld toe of the main plate.

F a t i g u e Tes ts

Fatigue tests were car r ied ou t u n d e r load-control led axial loading with fully re- versed cons tant ampl i tude at room tem- p e r a t u r e in air. C o n d i t i o n s for fa t igue tests to evaluate the effects of bo th the re- d is t r ibuted residual stresses by tensile pre- load and the tensile m e a n stresses by sta- tic load a re i l l u s t r a t ed in Fig. 5. Test f requency was in the range of 6 to 20 Hz. Fif teen fatigue tests were pe r fo rmed pe r each test condi t ion in accordance with the In te rna t iona l Inst i tute of Welding 's ( I IW) r e c o m m e n d a t i o n (Ref. 7). Fat igue tests

Table 3 - - Hot-Spot Stress Value o f Pre load and Mean Stress

Model SCF

1 1.49

Preload (MPa) 0

175.0 297.4 297.4 297.4

Mean Stress (MPa) 0 0 0

175.0 297.4

2 1.95

0 229.0 389.3 389.3 389.3

0 0 0

229.0 389.3

3 1.32

0 155.0 263.5 263.5 263.5

0 0 0

155.0 263.5

Case 1 3

6,11 12 13 1 4

7, 14 15 16 1 2

5,8 9 10

W E L D I N G J O U R N A L i 1 ;~5 .1

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100 i i : i i ~ O~"Q,~ . .~ , . ! N ~ i : ...................... :-----:--!---~:-!-~- " o~-~Q~ i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! " : ' : - ' : ! ! . . . . . . . . . . . . - ' ' . ~ ' ~ ~ " i !

....... i++ii +? ? i i i i+t ...... . . . . . . . . ;.+ + i - . ; - . + ; i+.i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i.- +

i i i i i i i !i

l x10 s l x10 ~ lx107

Nf (cyc le)

(a) Model 1



~-~' 100


lx10 ~

+ + iL+++i i + ++i+++ + i i i + i i i + i + i+ i l

- "~,T-!----T--~- i - T -i-~ t .............. P ....... T--~-T-!T!-!- i ~ l ~ +',~ ' i '.il3 i ': ': ': i ' : i i

i ! ' . ~ i i r - l - ~ i ~ ~, i : : i i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! - - !

l x10 ~ lx10 7 Nf (cycle)

(b) Model 2



~v 100

50 i i ! i i i i i i ii i i i ! i i i i i i i

l x10 s lx106 lx107

Nf (cyc le)

(c) Model 3

( ---0- : Condition 1, _,a,. : Condition 2, ..E~.. : Condition 3)

Fig. 6 - - Test results and AS-Nf curves with redistributed residual stress by


tigue strength was clearly affected by preloads. The greater the pre- load, the more the fatigue strength of the weldment in- creased. This incre- ment of fatigue strength was pre- dominant at the lower cyclic stress range. Fatigue test results under con- ditions 3, 4, and 5 are plotted in Fig. 7. There were big differences of fa- tigue strength by tensile mean stresses when ini- tial welding resid- ual stresses had been shaken-down by the preload.

were carried out until approximately 5 x 10 + cycles of loading and stopped, unless a fatigue crack was visually detected.

In this paper, the fatigue life of speci- men Nf is defined as the number of load cycles until the specimen is totally failed because of fatigue damage in the ship structure being subject to fairly developed cracks, but not reaching catastrophic structural failure. The equation of the S-N curve for each test condition was deter- mined with the results of Nf by least squares regression analysis. The test data stating that a crack was not detected until 5x106 of load cycles were not considered to derive the equation of an S-N curve.

Fatigue test results under conditions 1, 2, and 3 are plotted in Fig. 6, which repre- sents the relation between nominal stress range (AS) and the failure life (Nf). The fa-

A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f H o t - S p o t S t r e s s

To evaluate fatigue strength properly, there should be consistency between the stress with which the S-N curve is defined and the one with which fatigue strength is calculated. Most S-N curves proposed by international institutes, such as IIW (Ref. 7) and BS5400 (Ref. 8), are defined with the nominal stress range and the related weld-joint type. The nominal stress ex- cludes the stress concentration due to geo- metric shape such as structural disconti- nuities and presence of attachments. At most of the critical points in ship structure where fatigue strength is concerned, there are stress concentrations that depend not only on structural detail shapes but also on applied loading pattern. Furthermore, it is often hard to define the nominal stress

due to the complexity of structure and loading. Accordingly, there is a high pos- sibility of misevaluating the fatigue strength when it is evaluated with the nominal stress basis. Hot-spot stress is the recommended means of evaluating the fa- tigue strength in ship structures because it includes the stress concentration due to geometric shape. However, few S-N curves defined with hot-spot stress are proposed, except those for tubular joints. Therefore, it has been very hard to match the calculated hot-spot stress to the rele- vant S-N curve.

There are three different stress extrap- olation techniques as commonly recom- mended procedures for the calculation of hot-spot stresses in welded structures, i.e. 1) linear extrapolation of stresses over ref- erence points at 0.5 and 1.5 of plate thick- ness away from the hot spot; 2) linear ex- t rapolat ion of stresses over reference points at 0.4 and 1.0 of plate thickness away from the hot spot; and 3) no extrap- olation, but the stress value at 0.5 of plate thickness from the hot spot as the relevant hot spot stress. Finite element analyses using different types/sizes of elements and computing programs had been performed on various welded joints to calculate and to compare hot-spot stress values by these three techniques (Ref. 9). According to the results, the l inear extrapolat ion of stresses at 0.5 and 1.5 of plate thickness had shown the least scatters of the values at the reference point in association with different types/sizes of elements and com- puting programs. In this regard, linear ex- t rapolat ion of stresses over reference points at 0.5 and 1.5 of plate thickness away from the hot spot was adopted in this paper for the calculation of hot-spot stress values. Calculated stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the hot spot, using mod- els constituted with 4-node plane stress el- ements (of which size at the concerned

I l l . I S . ' ! J U L Y 2 0 0 3

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~" 100


lx10 s

! i i i ! i i i i ! : : : : : : : : :

i i i i ; - . . . ~IS~__.~

! o > i ......

! i ! i i ! ! i i i

l x10 ~ lx10 r

Nf (cycle)

(a) Mode l 1





~ ' lO0 .,~



. . . . . . . . . . . . . L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . L : 0 . ~ - ~ i i : i

l x10 5 lx10 s

Nf (cycle)

(b) Model 2





~ 100


i i i i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . ~ 4 ~ - " ~ - - - ~ : :~ ~-


lx105 lx106 lx107

Nf (cycle)

(e) Mode l 3

( -.0.. : Condition 3. - A - : Condition 4, ---O- : Condition 5)

Fig. 7 - - Test results and AS-Nfcurves with mean stress: Models 1, 2, 3.

2.2 I

--*-- Model 1 Model 2

. . . . . . . - = - Model 3


1.8 -..

1.6 - - - N

1 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 ~ :=::=1--

0.8 0 10 20 30 40

Distance from SP (mm)

Fig. 8 - - Longitudinal stress distribution from the structural intersection point (SIP) on main plate.

area was about the thickness order of the main plate) , were ob ta ined as 1.49 for Model 1, as 1.95 for Model 2, and as 1.32 for Model 3, as illustrated in Fig. 8. Table 3 lists the magni tude of pre loads and mean stresses on each model, which are substituted into hot-spot stress values, and the number of cases in relation to Equa- tions 2-8 and 12-20. To examine the ap- plicability of a unified S-N curve based on the hot-spot stress for the evaluation of the fatigue strength of various weld joints, the fatigue test results of Nf for three mod- els under the as-welded condi t ion are plotted on Fig. 9 in relation to the nomi- nal stress range of AS and to the hot-spot stress range of Ao sot The hot-spot stress p • ranges were calculated by multiplying the stress concentrat ion factors by the nomi- nal stress ranges. The test results of Model

1, Model 2, and Model 3 coincided well with an S-N curve under the basis of hot- spot stresses, irrespective of their weld- joint type.

Proposed HD S-N Curve

To estimate the fatigue strength with an arbitrary preload and static load, it is nec- essary to derive an equat ion of S-N curves that reflects effects of redistributed resid- ual stress and mean stress. From fatigue test results, the equat ion of S-N curves using the hot-spot stress range AO was de- rived.

Pre-Load Effect

S-N curves under var ious p re load cases, which were derived from the fatigue

test results of Model 1, Mode l 2, and Model 3, are represented by the following equations:

Case 1 ( (~load = 0.0 MPa) log N = 14.415 -3.776 log Ao

Case 2 (t~load = 155.0 MPa) log N = 17.579 - 5.184 log AG

Case 3 (Oio.d = 175.0 MPa) : log N = 15.167 - 4.095 log A(~

Case 4 ( t~load = 229.0 MPa) : log N = 15.103 - 3.950 log AG

Case 5 (OIoad = 263.5 MPa) : log N = 22.871 - 7.311 log Ao






WELDING J O U R N A L li[, ' i . ,"~l

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2oo ~ , ~ : ; -


: ~ ~ o o - - - - ' ~ m . , ~ ~ 7 7 - ~ ' " " "

".-,,p ~ " O o ~ ; ! :

Testresu,so,"o C'l - J - - ~ " - Test results of Model 2 I . . . . : " ~ " I L ~ I;] -- Test results of Model 3 J . : i~,,, i

50 '-- lx10 s l x 1 0 6

Nf (cycle)

lX10 7


~" 200 13.


............. -L ....... !---.-.!.--!---!--i-!-.!,

O Test results of Model 1 ....... ~----?- "--%~-~--: : : : : : ; :

lx Test results of Model2 ! ! ! : ! ! ! [] r . t ~ . .~ , , , ,Mod.I 3 d---~ T-I tTi

m ~ - t 4 . , , 5 . 3 7 7 0 1 o g A G . ~ ....... T 7 ! - T T - t l

5Ox105 l x 1 0 ° lx107

Nf (cycle)

Fig. 9 - - Fatigue test results under as-welded condition.



1 O0


: : : • AGo.,,m~

2 : ' , ~ 2 :: S-N Curve under as-welded condition :: S-N Curve under arbitrary pre-load condition I ....... ~

lx106 5x108 lx10 r Nf (cycle)


, t =



"~ 1.06

'~ 1.04


1 . 0 0 - 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


. . . . . . .

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

a(a~, ,~ I ,so)

Fig. 10 - - Definition of AGsameand AGp,limi r Fig. 11 - - Relation between AG0,1imi t and magnitude o f preload (ct).

Case 6 (Gload = 297.4 MPa) : log N = 18.683 - 5.383 log AG (7)

Case 7 (aload = 389.3 MPa) : log N = 16.204 - 4.209 log Aa (8)

where O'load is the magnitude of hot-spot stress by preload.

In this paper, the fatigue strength of hot-spot stress range at 5 x 106 cycles under an arbitrary preload with zero mean stress is defined as fatigue limit AOp limit, as i l lustrated in Fig. 10. Then the fatigue limit unde r the as-welded condi t ion AG0,1imi t is 110.44 MPa. Figure 11 shows the re la t ion be tween the fatigue l imit AGp limit and the magn i tude of preload, (x. Provided the relation between

log Aa . limit and (x is approximated to the secondVorder equation, the relation can be represented as follows by the least squares regression analysis.

log Ao. limit = ( 0"0284(x2 + 0.1~232c~ + 1) log A~0,limi t (9)

where c~ is magnitude of tensile preload (aload/ao; a o = 235 MPa) and Ao'0,iimi t is the fatigue limit under the as-welded con- dition ( = 110.44 MPa).

In tersec ted points be tween the S-N curve under the as-welded condit ion and the ones under various preload cases are defined as AOsame, as illustrated in Fig. 10. The value of A(~same m e a n s the stress range at which the effect of redistributed

residual stress on fatigue strength is di- minished under each preloaded case. At the stress range beyond AOsame, it is ex- pected there would be no change of fa- tigue strength between the as-welded con- dition and the preloaded case. Figure 12 shows the relation between AOsame and c~. The data of AOsame for Cases 4 and 7 were discarded because they were far from a reasonable range. Provided the relation between AOsame and (x is approximated to be linear, the relation can be represented as follows by the least squares regression analysis.

log AOsame = (0.196C~ + 1)log AO0,1imi t (10)

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0 0.5 1 1.5


| 1.6 E" ~" 1. 4

.~ _~ 1.a

~ 1.0 • ¢ ,-z

_~o.e 0.4


0.2 - t . . . .

0.0 ' f ' 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I . . . . .



fl(O'me=n,sl~/OIo=d, spot)

Fig. 12 - - Relation between AGsame and magnitude of preload (o0. Fig: 13 - - Relation between AGp,limi t anti magnitude of mean stress (~).


~ " 200 EL

~ 100

501x10~ lx106

--,,.eanS-,.,,.am ii . . . . . Design S-N diagram O Test results of Model 1

Test results of Model 2 [ ] Test results of Model 3

l x10 z

Nf ( c y c l e )

(a) (~lo,a,~pot = 241.7 MPa, (r . . . . . . . pot = 0.0 M P a )


200 12.

~ 100

i i i ! ! :

. . . . i ! i i

• : : : :


i l i i i " . . . . ' i l i ii Mean S-N diagram

. . . . . Design S-N diagram O Test results of Model 1 /', Test results of Model 2 [ ] Test results of Model 3

50x105 lx106 lx107

Nf ( c y c l e )

(b ) (13'load.spo t 241.7 M P a , O'mean.spo t 137.1 M P a )

Fig. 14 - - Comparison of l iD S-N diagram and additional Jbtigue test results.

From Equa t ions 9 and 10, the equa t ion of S-N curves tha t reflects the effects of re- d i s t r ibu ted res idual s tress with an arbi- t rary tensi le p re load but wi thout tensi le m e a n stress can be derived as follows.

I ogN = C l + m I l o g A o (11)


C, = [114.415 -3.7761ogAG,,m~)-IogAGp.,mi,

- 6.699. log A G~,,,,~ ] / log A Go, limit -- IogAG .....

6.699 - 114.415 - 3.776 logAG ..... ) m =

log AGmAimit - - IogAG ..... (~ > 0)

In the case ofA(~ > A(~same or 5 = 0 , Equa- t ion 2 is to be applied.

In the case of compressive preload, the

S-N curve unde r the as-welded condi t ion is r e c o m m e n d e d for the design purpose because there would be no large redistr ib- ut ion of residual stress f rom an engineer- ing judgment .

Mean Stress Effect

It was d e t e r m i n e d tha t the effect of cyclic stress rat io (min imum stress/maxi- m u m st ress) was m i n o r on the fa t igue s t reng th of a s t ruc ture u n d e r the initial residual stress condi t ion by welding that a lmost reached yield stress of the mater ia l at the weld toe (Ref. 6). There fo re , the mean stress effect on the fatigue s t rength of s t ructures is minor as far as they are ex- posed to cyclic load ing u n d e r the as- welded condi t ion. At the stress range be-

yond AGsame, where the effect of pre load is diminished, the effect of the m e a n stress is also ignored, and E q u a t i o n 2 of the as- welded condi t ion may be applicable to ar- b i t r a ry p r e l o a d e d cases wi th m e a n stresses.

From Equat ions 2 and 10, fat igue test resul t s u n d e r tens i le m e a n s t resses are represen ted as follows:

Case 8 (ol,,a d = 263.5 MPa, Ome,n = 0.0 MPa) (12)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logA~ (Aft > Affsame ) : log N = 18.1183 - 5.248 logAa (AG < AGsamc )

Case 9 ( ( ~ h , a d : 263.5 MPa, Cmean = 155.0 MPa) (13)

:logN = 14.415 - 3.776 logAG (AG> A~same ) : log N = 13.756 -3.512 IogAff (Ac~ < Ac~samc )

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Case 10 (Oload = 263.5 MPa, Omean = 263.5 MPa) (14)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 IogAcr (Aa >-- At~same ) : log N = 12.910 - 3.172 logA~ (A~ < AOsame )

Case 11 (Oload = 297.4 MPa, Crrnea n = 0.0 MPa) (15)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logAc (Act _> At~same ) : log N = 18.570 - 5.405 logA~ (A~ < At~same )

Case 12 (~load = 297.4 MPa, t~mean = 175.0 MPa) (16)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logA~ (Ac >-- At~same) : log N = 14.838 - 3.942 logAt~ (A~ < A~,m~)

Case 13 (~load = 297.4 MPa, (;mean = 297.4 MPa) (17)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logA~ (Aa > ACrsame ) : log N = 14.385 - 3.765 logAo (A~ < At~same )

Case 14 ((~load = 389.3 MPa, (rmean = 0.0 MPa) (18)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logAo" (A~ >-- At~same ) : log N = 20.120 - 5.884 logA~ (A~ < A~sarne)

Case 15 (Crload = 389.3 MPa, Om~an = 229.0 MPa) (19)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logA~ (A~ > At~same ) : log N = 13.917 - 3.593 logAt~ (A~ < At~same )

Case 16 (O~oad = 389.3 MPa, t~m~,n = 389.3 MPa) (20)

: log N = 14.415 - 3.776 logAt~ (A,~ > At~same ) : log N = 13.466 - 3.426 logAt~ (Aa < At~same )

where t~mean is the magnitude of hot-spot mean stress.

Figure 13 shows the relation between the fatigue limit with an arbitrary mean s t r e s s At~m,limi t and the magnitude of the mean stress, 13. Provided the relation be- tween Affm,limi t and ~ is approximated to a second order equation, the relation can be represented as follows:

log Affm,limi t = log Affp,limi t

- )'(At~p,limi t - log At~0,1imit) (21)

where 13 is magn i tude of tensi le mean s t r e s s ((Ymean/l~load) and

log A O'p,limi t - - log A (~m.limit 7 =

log A (~p,limit -- log A (~0,1imit

=-1.285~ 2 +2.609~

From Equations 9 and 21, the fatigue limit with an arbitrary tensile mean stress under an arbitrary tensile preload can be derived as follows.

l og At3m,limi t = [(0.0284ct2+0.0232t~+l) + (1.28513-~- 2.60913) (0.0284ct 2 + 0.0232c0]

• logAt~0,1imi t (22)

In the case of compress ive m e a n

stresses, the S-N curve under zero mean stress is recommended for the design pur- pose.

HD S-N Curve

From fatigue test results, Equat ion 10, the equat ion of the intersected point be- tween the S-N curve under the as-welded condi t ion and the ones under the pre- loaded case, and Equat ion 22, the equa- tion of fatigue limit, have been established taking account of effects of the pre load and the mean stress. The equat ions are based on the hot-spot stress and expected to be applicable for the fatigue assessment of various fillet welded structural joints. To propose "Hot spot stress-based Design S-N Curve (so called H D S-N Curve)," the standard deviation between equations and test results was calculated as 0.181 using the following equation.

2 1 n

,2 = ,_E,(x ' (23)

where, s is standard deviation of logN, x i is the logarithm of the number of cycles ob- tained from fatigue test results, and £g is the logarithm of number of cycles cal- culated from the equation.

With 2.35% of probability of failure, the H D S-N Curve with mean minus two standard deviations, Equat ion 24, may be proposed in general for the assessment of the fatigue strength of fillet weld joints at the design stage.

log N = C + m logAo - 2 s (24)


C = [(14.415-3.7761ogA'~same)'logAam,limit

- 6.699- log A 6 same ] / (log A t~ re,limit -- log z~ t~ same )

when (A~spot < A(~same ), or C = 14.415 when (ct = 0 o r At~spot -> At~same);

6.699 - (14.415 - 3.776 log A cr~,~¢) m -

log A ff re.limit - - log A Csam~

when (A~spot < A(;same ), or m = -3.776 when (a = 0 or Affspot >- A(~same);

s = the standard deviation of log N (= 0.181);

log A~same = (0.196Ct + 1)logAo0,1imit;

log AGm,limi t = [(0.0284Cd+0.0232Ct+ 1)

+ (1.285~2-2.609~)(0.0284Cd + 0.0232t~)]

• log At~0,1imit;

Ct = the magnitude of tensile preload

when (Oload/Oo -> 0) , or, in the case of compressive preload only, ct = 0;

[3 = magnitude of tensile mean stress when (1.0 > t~mean/~load > 0), or, in the case of compressive mean stress, ~ = 0;

A(~0,1imi t -- fatigue limit under as-welded condition ( = 110.44 MPa);

G o = design yield stress ( = 235 MPa);

'~loaO = magnitude of hot-spot stress by preload (design load in general);

¢~mean ---- magnitude of hot-spot stress by actual static load related to concerned load condition.

Verification of HD S-D Curve

Addit ional fatigue tests were carried out under an arbitrary pre load and two mean stress conditions to verify the H D S-N Curve. Fatigue test results and the H D S-N Curve under related test condi- tions are shown in Fig. 14. The additional fatigue test results show reasonable agree- ment with the H D S-N Curve.

C o n c l u s i o n

Contempora ry assessment proposals for the fatigue strength of ship structures have been derived from the research re- suits for o the r industr ies such as s teel bridges and offshore structures. It should be noted that, in ship structures, not only structural details in geometry and mater- ial but also loading pat terns of the dy- namic and the static types are different from those of o ther structures.

To examine the effect of static load his- tory on ship structure, simulation by FE analysis and measurement by a sectioning method for the distribution of the residual stress were both carried out. Initial weld- ing residual stresses at the weld toe, which almost reached tensile yield point of the material, were shaken down by the tensile preload. The bigger the preload became, the more the residual stress decreased, ac- cording to results of both the simulation and the measurement. Due to the effect Of the tensile preload, the fatigue strength was changed. The bigger the tensile pre- load was, the more the fatigue strength in- creased, and this fatigue strength incre- ment was predominant at the lower cyclic stress range.

Fatigue tests were also carried out ap- plying the tensile mean stresses under pre- loaded conditions to examine the effect of the mean stress on fatigue strength. There were big differences of fatigue strength from tensile mean stresses when the pre- load had shaken-down initial welding

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residual stresses. The fatigue strength de- creased drastically from the tensile mean stress, and this decrement was predomi- nant at the lower cyclic stress range.

It is noteworthy that the main purpose of this research work emphasizes its prac- tical application to ship structural design. From the results of fatigue tests, an em- pirical formula of S-N curves, taking ac- count of the effect of the arbitrary pre- load and mean stress in consideration of loading conditions in ship structures, which was based on the hot-spot stress range, was derived in the closed form. The standard deviation between the formula and the fatigue test results was calculated. With 2.35% of probability of failure, "HD S-N Curve (Hot spot stress-based Design S-N Curve)" was proposed. However, to generalize and to utilize the HD S-N Curve in the shipbuilding industry, further research work on the following areas is recommended.

Fatigue tests on lower cyclic stress range. The fatigue tests were carried out until around 5 x 10" cycles of loading and stopped in this research work. In ship structure, the fatigue strength is assessed on the basis of design S-N curves and Miner's accumulative damage rule, with the stress spectrum in consideration of variable ampli tude loads. Most fatigue damage is contributed by dynamic stress at the level of 2 x 10 ~ - 1 x 10" load cycles. In this regard, when a new Design S-N Curve is established, fatigue test results at the high cycle load region (around 1 × 10 7 cy- cles) are important to enhance the relia- bility of the S-N curve, even though it is very time-consuming to carry out tests at low stress ranges.

Definition of hot-spot stress. The result- ing value of hot-spot stress may differ de- pending on the FE program or on the ele- ment type, although the procedure for the calculation is just the same (Ref. 9). It is necessary to establish a more appropriate procedure for the calculation of the hot- spot stress that may represent the state of stress in relation to the fatigue behavior of welded joints.

Different workmanship of welding. Fa- tigue strength of the welded structure is highly dependent on the quality of the fab- rication. All specimens in this research work were fabricated by only one ship- yard, with its normal workmanship. Com- parison of test results with specimens fab- ricated by a variety of shipyards will be required.

Verification of shaken-down residual stresses in actual ship structures. The re- distributions of initial welding residual

stresses by preloads in small-scale speci- mens may not necessarily represent those in actual ship structures due to complexity of the structural geometry. In addition to welding residual stresses, other mechani- cal residual stresses, induced by forced re- straints during block assembly and so on, are imposed simultaneously. It is neces- sary to measure shaken-down residual stresses at the hot spot of the ship struc- ture by the cargo loading history and to calibrate the effect of preloads on the fa- tigue strength.

Accumulation of further experimental data. In this research work, fatigue tests were performed with only three fillet- welded joint types of specimens, which were fabricated with ship structural mild steel of grade A. Accumulation of experi- mental results with other joint types, such as lap joints, and other materials, such as higher tensile steel, is necessary. In addi- tion, further fatigue tests under lower mean stress levels are recommended.

Fatigue tests under other types of loading. Fatigue tests were performed under uni- axial loads only. Fatigue strength under other types of loading such as out-of-plane bending loads and bi-axial loads should be verified.


A joint industry project to assess the fa- tigue capacity of floating production, stor- age, and off-loading (FPSO) units was es- tablished by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) under the title "FPSO JIP - - Fatigue Ca- pacity" (Ref. 10). The objective of this project was to provide data to obtain a re- liable design basis that can be used to en- sure sufficient fatigue capacity of FPSO units. This was to avoid costly mainte- nance during in-service life. Eighteen companies, including oil companies, clas- sification societies, engineering compa- nies, a governmental organization, and shipbuilders, joined the JIP. The fatigue test with small specimens of typical fillet weld joints in ship structures was one of the main tasks for investigation of the ef- fect of mean and residual stress. The au- thors express appreciation to all partici- pants of the JIP for their permission for the publication of fatigue test results. The conclusions expressed in this paper are those of authors and do not necessarily re- flect the views of all participants.


1. Kim, W. S., Tomita, Y., Hashimoto, K., and Osawa, N. 1997. Effects of static load on fatigue strength of ship structure. Proc. 7th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference 4:565-71.

2. Matsuoka, K., Takahashi, I., Ue- matsu, S., and Ushijima, M. 2000. Effect of load history on fatigue life of welded joint. Journal of SNAJ 188:617-24 (in Japanese).

3. Det Norske Veritas AS. 1997. Rules for Classification of Ships, Part 3.

4. Lloyd Register of Shipping. 1997. Rules and Regulation for the Classification of Ships, Part 4.

5. American Bureau of Shipping. 1997. Rules for Building and Classing Steel Ships, Part 5.

6. Maddox, S. J. 1982. Influence of ten- sile residual stresses on the fatigue behav- ior of welded joints in steel. Residual Stress Effects in Fatigue. ,4STM STP 776 pp. 63-96

7. International Institute of Welding. 1994. Recommendation on Fatigue of Welded Components. IIW Document XII- 1539-94/XV-845-94.

8. British Standards Institution. 1980. Steel, concrete and composite bridges, Part 10. Code of Practice for Fatigue.

9. Fricke, W. 2001. Recommended hot spot analysis procedure for structural de- tails of FPSOs and ships based on round- robin FE analysis. Proc. l lth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference 4:89-96.

10. Lotsberg, I. 2000. Background and status of the FPSO fatigue capacity JIP. Proc. 32nd Annual Offshore Technology Conference 2:721-8.

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A Probabilistic Diffusion Weld Modeling Framework

A probabilistic modeling framework realistically accounts for manufacturing variability and successfully models bond impact strength in Ti-6AI-4V


ABSTRACT. Physics-based modeling of critical diffusion welds is problematic at best and, in practice, semi-empirical ap- proaches are employed. This work reviews existing pore closure models identifying their shortcomings vis-a-vis actual manu- facturing environments. A framework is developed that incorporates realistic man- ufacturing process attributes such as sur- face topography into pore closure models. Relevant quantities are represented as distribution functions instead of deter- ministic values, and manufacturing attrib- utes are then correlated to parameters in these distribution functions. Using a Monte Carlo approach, the distribution of residual joint porosity as a function of both manufacturing attributes and bond process conditions (time, pressure, and temperature) can be derived. Existing models do not capture joint strength, so an additional objective of this work is to model the relationship between residual joint porosity and joint impact strength by applying probabilistic failure models. Fi- nally, this overall approach is applied to model impact strength data of diffusion welds in Ti-6AI-4V.


Diffusion welding has been success- fully applied to critical components for the past 30-plus years. For demanding appli- cations such as gas turbine engines, there are extreme quality requirements and sig- nificant process control challenges (Refs. 1-4). As a practical matter, manufacturers have resorted to empirical process devel- opment, occasionally augmented by process modeling. Physically motivated analytical approaches have seldom met with success in accelerating development

V. R. DAVE and D. A. H A R T M A N are with the Nuclear Materials and Technology Div., and L J. B E Y E R L E I N is with the Theoretical Div., Los Alarnos National Laboratory, Los Alarnos, N. Mex. J. M. BARBIERI is with United Tech- nologies Corp., E. Hartford, Conn.

efforts. The reasons for this are numerous but include:

1) No clear methodology for incorpo- rating realistic manufacturing process at- tributes into physically motivated models

2) The lack of a linkage between pore closure models and mechanical properties

3) Insufficient or inaccurate materials data to evaluate all the material constants in pore closure models

Although infrequently used in the past, analytical models are useful. Diffusion weld quality assurance for critical applica- tions is presently based on exhaustive and expensive nondestructive and destructive examination. Due to the extreme conse- quences of an in-service failure, this con- servative strategy is adopted. From a man- ufacturing perspective, in-process quality assurance is desired, capturing all relevant manufacturing process attributes. From a design engineering perspective, assess- ment of component reliability as a func- tion of manufacturing attributes is needed while minimizing specimen testing. For example, the fracture and fatigue proper- ties of diffusion welded articles exhibit a strong dependence on residual porosity level, pointing to the need for probabilis- tic approaches to characterize the depen- dence of mechanical properties on poros- ity. Achieving these objectives would significantly reduce manufacturing cost and reduce the engineering effort needed to qualify new designs or processes. Im- proved modeling can therefore benefit manufacturing quality assurance as well as


Diffusion Welding Titanium Porosity Probabilistic Model Monte Carlo Topography

design reliability, and this work represents an initial effort along these lines. This is done by first relating machining process parameters to an initial porosity distribu- tion, then allowing pore closure models to operate on the initial pore distribution to give a final pore distribution, and, finally, making the link between porosity and weld impact strength. Weld impact strength is chosen because it conserva- tively assesses weld quality.

Review of Existing Pore Closure Models for Diffusion Welding and Their Shortcomings

The first conceptual process model by King and Owczarski (Ref. 5) had four stages - - Fig. 1: 1) initial contact, 2) at- tainment of intimate interracial contact, 3) grain boundary diffusion/migration, and, finally, 4) volume diffusion. Initial contact is limited to a few asperities, fol- lowed by Stage 1, in which the asperities are crushed. Stage 2 involves grain bound- ary diffusion and migration, whereas Stage 3 consists of volume diffusion to isolated voids. King and Owczarski of- fered a conceptual framework but did not quantitatively model pore closure. Kellerer and Milacek (Ref. 6) also identi- fied creep and bulk diffusion as mecha- nisms through which intimate surface contact is developed. Another early work by Hamilton (Ref. 7) proposed that the diffusion welding process consists of four steps: 1) development of intimate interra- cial contact, 2) formation of the metallic bond, 3) interdiffusion, and 4) recrystal- lization/grain growth. Hamilton modeled pore closure dominated by plastic flow with asperity crushing and successfully identified the pressure required to achieve joint tensile strengths approach- ing base material properties. Ironically, this early work offered predictive capabil- ity with respect to joint strength, whereas in subsequent works, this link to mechan- ical properties is absent.

The first quantitative pore closure

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Initial Contact

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Fig. 1 - - Schematic illustrating stages of diffu- sion welding.


I Pores are uniformly elliptical and all the same size

, , _

t j j

f ( ( ( f( ()hhf}ti(!(!(!P(l(!(! ) i ) ) y 7 / / /

Fig. 2 - Weld surf'ace topography. A - - Idealized but inaccurate representation of pore distribution; B - - schematic representation of the intersection of cutter marks of two machined surfaces.

model including multiple mechanisms was by Garmong, Paton, and Argon in 1975 (Ref. 8). Garmong et al. included the effects of surface topography by charac- terizing long and short wavelength sur- face features and proposed multiple local pore closure mechanisms, namely creep and vacancy diffusion. They were also the first to realize surface waviness (long wavelength features) could dominate the time required to attain interfacial contact but that local pore closure determines the rate of final densification and the residual porosity distribution. The physics of pore sintering based on surface energy and power law creep mechanisms is traceable to Coble (Ref. 9) and Wilkinson and Ashby (Ref. 10). Coble (Ref. 9) examined both surface energy and creep as driving forces, whereas Wilkinson and Ashby (Ref. 10) examined in greater detail the influence of creep.

The next significant extensions to pore closure models are found in a series of works first by Derby and Wallach (Refs.

11-14) and later by Hill and Wallach (Ref. 15). These models incorporate multiple pore closure mechanisms dominant at var- ious stages in the welding process. Table 1 outlines these mechanisms and their un- derlying physical driving forces (Ref. 15). Although this series of models culminat- ing in Ref. 15 significantly advanced un- derstanding of pore closure mechanisms, the claim of the authors in Ref. 15, namely that modeling can "...virtually eliminate the need to experimentally optimize bond- ing conditions," is unfortunately not real- ized in industrial practice.

Additional models include Pilling et al. (Ref. 16) and Guo and Ridley (Ref. 17), who examined the diffusion welding of Ti- 6Al-4V. Pilling et al. (Ref. 16) considered creep as influenced by effect of grain size. Guo and Ridley expanded upon this work to incorporate diffusion effects and the role of void shape and phase proportions (e.g., a and 13 phases). Takahaski and Inoue (Ref. 18) examined the method in which creep and diffusion terms are combined

under various loading conditions. They found that void shrinkage depends on macroscopic mechanical constraint, i.e., boundary conditions imposed by tooling.

There is significant former Soviet Union work on diffusion welding mecha- nisms relevant to modeling. References 19 and 20 identified the importance of the local strain at the interface. One work ex- amined relaxation of machining-induced residual stresses and found these strain rates to be twice as large as bulk creep rates (Ref. 21). Additionally the effects of rolling texture on joining kinetics have been examined for Alloy VT6 (aerospace grade Ti-6AI-4V) in Ref. 22. Several works examined the effect of residual gas at the weld interface, the dissolution kinetics of surface oxides, and the dependence of weld strength on the amount of surface oxide initially present (Refs. 23-25, re- spectively).

Now the shortcomings of current pore closure models are critically examined. Al- though this work does not address all of


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/ Table 1 - - Pore Closure Mechanisms and Their Underlying Physical Driving Forces

Pore Physical Closure Driving

Mechanism Force(s)

1 Plastic yielding Mostly determined of asperities by stress state during initial at bond contact

2 Creep 3 Surface diffusion Differences in

from a surface surface curvature, source to a so these neck (intersection mechanisms cease region separating when pores no two pores) longer have

4 Volume diffusion varying radii from a surface of curvature source to a neck

5 Vapor-phase transport from a surface source to a neck

6 Diffusion along the bond interface or a grain boundary from interracial sources to a neck

7 Volume diffusion from interracial sources to a neck

Chemical potential gradient, which will be influenced by local stress state

these, the modeling framework presented here is a useful starting point in making pore closure models more realistic. The most limiting shortcoming is that current models do not address the issue of joint strength. In solid-state diffusion welds the weld impact strength is the most sensitive measure of weld imperfections such as residual porosity or contamination (Ref. 26). The impact strength can drop signifi- cantly due to small fractions of residual porosity. Other than the early work by


Fig. 3 - - Important geometrical parameters that determine the intersection problem.

Hamilton (Ref. 7), the authors are not aware of a single work that attempts to model any aspect of diffusion weld me- chanical properties. The probabilistic fail- ure model in this present work is, there- fore, the first of its kind as applied to diffusion welding.

Another shortcoming addressed in this work is the fact that current pore closure models portray weld surface topography too simplistically: actual engineering sur- faces are not ideal arrays of pores. Al- though recognized by some workers (e.g., Ref. 14), to date there has not been a method proposed to account for this topo- graphic variability. This work addresses surface topography in two ways. Firstly,

the statistical problem of randomly inter- secting circular machining marks is solved. Secondly the surface roughness on a mi- croscopic scale is specified by distribution functions, and the nonlinear ordinary dif- ferential equations (ODE) in pore closure models then operate on such distribu- tions. This is accomplished by a Monte Carlo method (see Appendix). It should be noted the proposed framework can be used to model any manufacturing uncer- tainty/variability including material prop- erties, boundary conditions, etc. The phys- ical phenomena not addressed in this work include weld contamination, material tex- ture, residual stresses, and the effect of microstructural evolution on creep.

Probabilistic Approach to Pore Closure Models - - Problem Formulation

The problem of weld surface topogra- phy will now be addressed. The idealized but incorrect representation of the weld plane is shown in Fig. 2A. Real surfaces are typically prepared using circular mo- tion and a cutting tool with some specified cutting speed (surface velocity of tool rel- ative to workpiece) and feed rate (dis- tance between adjacent engagements of tool and workpiece). The part is generally larger than the cutting tool path and there- fore the intersection of cutting tool marks from adjacent cuts is better represented by Fig. 2B. The black lines are cutter marks on one faying surface intersecting at some angle the gray machining marks on the op- posite surface. It is assumed in this work that these circular marks randomly inter- sect. In addition to the intersection of cut- ter lines, other manufacturing attributes determining initial porosity distribution include the feed and the surface rough- ness. To a first approximation these three local surface quantities, feed, roughness,

A 0.045




~ 0.025 © © 0.02

8 o.o15 0.01


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Angle, radlans

B 1





~ 0 . 5





I m

0 0.5 I 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Angle, radius

Fig. 4 - - Intersection o f cutter marks. A - - Normalized PDF for angle o f intersection y," B - - CDF corresponding to PDF shown in Fig. 4/t.

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e d<< R, cut terpath radius ~

I Depth

Fig. 5 - - lnitial porosity distribution locally described as arrays of ellipsoidal pores.

and the intersection angle, determine the distribution of initial voids.

The prototypical intersection event oc- curs when two circular marks cross, as shown in Fig. 3. The important variables are the center-to-center spacing D, the cutter radius R, intersection angle 7, and the feed spacing d when considering the marks immediately adjacent to the two in- tersecting circles. From elementary geom- etry, we see that

ff/ 12 y=2- t an q -1

where R is the cutter path radius, and

O_-----D ,0<0<] 2R (1)

Since the circles are assumed to intersect

A 0 .25


0 .15

~ 0.1

o =

~ = 0 . 0 5

0 iii . . . . . . 0 10 20 30 4 0

Pore Size, micrometers 50

B 1.21 l

0 . 8 4

i°°i 0.4


0 ; : : :

0 10 2 0 30 4 0 5 0

Pore Size, micrometers Fig. 6 - - lnitial pore distribution. A - - Example of a normalized PDF for initial pore size; B - - CDF corresponding to PDF shown in Fig. 6.4.

~ l m t i a l Dislnbubon 3.448 MPa 500sec ~ In ifial Dislribulion . . . . 6.895 MPa. Ihr . . . . . . . 3448 MPa. ]hr. - - 0 . b 8 % M Pa. [hr. - . . . . . . 3 448 MPa, 1000soc . . . . . 3 448 MPa 5000sec

; ..J / .....- / /

07 0.7

0.5 / o.5

¢" 0.4 • ,*" 0.4

~ 1 3 . . ' ; 03

0.2 - . . : 0.2

0 I 0.1

o o ,o ~ , . , , . . ~°c . . . . , . J ' ~o 3, ,o o ~ ,o ,~ 2o 2~ 3o . , o poff $iz¢, micromllen

Fig. 7 - - Evolution of pore size distribution. A - -As a function of'externally appfied weld pressure; B - - as a function of weM time at a given appfied pressure.

W E L D I N G J O U R N A L I~

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~ i n i t i a l dist, PDF ~ 6 . 8 9 5 MPa, lh r PDF . . . . . . . 3.448 MPa, lh r PDF - - 0 . 6 8 9 5 MPa, 1hr. PDF

2, I

" i

0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 I boad qumllly

20 ¸

- - 3.448 M Pa, 560 s¢c PDF . . . . . . . 3.448 M Pa. 100Ose¢. PDF - - 3.448 MPa. 50(~s¢c. PDF

| i ,


0 B 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95

bond qualil?,.'



i 10




Fig. 8 - - PDFs showing evolution o f weM quafity. A - - As a function of appfied pressure; B - - as a function o f weM time at a given pressure.

Load carrying, bonded, w i t h

probability p

Non load carrying, pore, with

probability q = 1 - p

N ligaments

--,-0.s0% -----0.25% --~0.50% ~- leo ----2*/, ] I c

0.9 ]



i / i 0 . 5

0.4 ~




I~ I 10 100 1000 10000 IMJ nearest neighbor spacing

Fig. 9 - - Schematic o f 1-D lattice model o f a diffusion weld. A - - WeMed vs. unweMed elements; B - - CDFs for pore nearest neighbor spacing as a function

o f porosity level.

Table 2 - - M a t e r i a l C o n s t a n t s Used in M o d e l i n g Pore C los ure

Material Numerical Constant Value (cgs units)

y, pore 1000 erg/cm2 surface energy D, diffusivity 10-, cm-Ts KL, material 4.235 x 10-t2 parameter in (dynes/cm2)-I • (s)-I constitutive equation for material creep CF,,, material 3.275 x 10 -6 parameter in (dynes/cm 2) constitutive equation for material creep fl, vacancy 2.7 x 10 -23 cm3 volume B, vacancy 0.01778 cm sink radius (assumed to be identical to average value of the feed spacing d)

at random on the weld plane, ~ may be thought of as a uniform random variable on the interval [0,1]. Equation 1 then gen- erates the probabil i ty density function ( P D F ) and the cumulative distribution function ( C D F ) for the angle of intersec- tion 7. The P D F is the frequency of occur- rence of a particular quantity, whereas the C D F is the probability that the given quan- tity will assume a value less than or equal to a specified value. A Monte Carlo method as described in the Appendix is used to perform the evaluation. The his- togram bin size for the angle 7 is 0.025n over the range [0,n]. The resulting nor- malized P D F and C D F for the angle of in- tersection 7 are shown in Fig. 4A and 4B, respectively. These calculated distribution functions are continuous but "serrated" on account of the finite bin size. These dis- tributions are independent of cutter size and are valid as long as the assumption of random intersection is met.

The feed d is assumed to obey a distri- bution function as well. Typical feed rates for the finish machining of titanium are on the order of 178 micrometers/rev (0.007

in./rev) (Ref. 27). The feed rate varies due to vibration in the tool or fixture, tool wear, and material hardening during cutting and residual stress-induced surface deforma- tion. In practice the distribution function for the feed spacing can be experimentally determined from surface profile traces measuring the distribution of peak-to- peak spacing. Similarly, the initial void depth h is correlated to the surface rough- ness of the as-machined surface as well as subsequent steps such as chemical clean- ing. In this work it will be assumed that both d and h are normally distributed.

Using the relationship in Equation 1 and assuming d and h follow normal dis- tribution laws, the initial distribution of porosity is calculated, i.e., initial condi- tions for pore closure models. Figure 5 il- lustrates that if the feed is much smaller than the cutter path radius R, then the local surface intersection problem is re- duced to the problem of an array of ellip- soidal pores specified byd, h, and 7. In this work a further simplifying assumption will be made: "equivalent" spherical pores are assumed because the model by Garmong

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et al. (Ref. 8) used in subsequent calcula- tions is only valid for spherical pores. The models of Derby and Wallach (Refs. 11-14) and Hill and Wallach (Ref. 15) are capable of handling elliptical pores. More complex models would be a numerical ex- tension of this work without significant qualitative differences. The equivalent spherical pore radius will be taken as the radius of a spherical pore with the same volume as an ellipsoid.

requi v = 31hd2 cos( Y--].sin( Y--I L, 2J ~ 2 ) (2)

Figure 6A shows the normalized PDF for the initial pore size assuming the follow- ing: dmean = 178 micrometers (0.007 in.) with an assumed standard deviation of 17.8 micrometers (0.0007 in.), hmean cor- responds roughly to Rm~ x and Rm~ x, = 2.54 micrometer (100 microinch), and the stan- dard deviation forh is assumed to be 0.254 micrometer (10 microinch). Figure 6B shows the corresponding CDF. Note the skew-type asymmetry of this distribution.

Next, the initial pore size distribution is incorporated into mechanistic models for pore closure. The initial pore size is as- sumed to be a continuous random variable with distributions as described by Fig. 6A and 6B. The final pore size will therefore be a function of this random variable, also depending on parameters such as pressure and temperature. To find the distribution function for the final pore size given the distribution for the initial pore size, the following identity is invoked (Ref. 28):

Given random variable X and a function Y - g(X)

where g(X)isamonotonie

function of X, then CDFy(t)- P(Y <t)


For the simple case in which the final pore size depends only on the initial pore size with pressure, temperature, etc., ap- pearing as fixed parameters , equating probabilities for equivalent events as for- mally described in Equation 3 is valid. In this case the function g is the solution to the ODEs for pore closure. If, however, pressure and temperature also obey distri- butions, or if more complex models are used involving more than one random variable, Equation 5 cannot be used be-

cause there will be multiple ways to create equivalent outcomes. In such cases, a Monte Carlo approach is used - - Fig. AI .

As previously mentioned, the model used in this work is due to Garmong et al. (Ref. 8). This model is described by the ODEs below

+f a / ,, d t / D I F F U S I O N (4)

where a is the pore size and t is the elapsed time.

The creep and diffusion contributions are specified by

( tl a(dda) I2~Ya+Pextl


where D is the diffusion constant (self-dif- fusion for vacancies); f~ is the vacancy vol- ume; k is Boltzmann's constant; T is the absolute temperature; d is the spacing be- tween pores, i.e., the feed rate; ~ is the pore surface energy; and Pext is the exter- nally applied stress.

(d--~t I - 3Kla CREEP 4

(I-' a 3

1 -~--~- (5b)

where K l is a material constant in a con- stitutive creep model described in Ref. 8; o o is also a material constant in a consti- tutive creep model described in Ref. 8; d is the spacing between pores, i.e. the feed rate; and Pi,, is the pressure inside the pore due to trapped residual gas.

These equations were solved using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (Ref. 29) with fixed step size. The material con- stants used from Ref. 8 are reproduced in Table 2. Equations 5a and 5b were numer- ically integrated using the initial pore size distribution shown in Fig. 6A. For a given initial pore size, the final pore size was cal- culated. The probability associated with the given initial pore size as in Fig. 6B was also assigned to the corresponding final pore size to create the CDF for final pore size in accordance with Equation 3.

Probabilistic Approach to Pore Closure Models m Model Results

The resulting CDFs for final pore size are shown in Fig. 7A for various levels of applied external load, namely 0.6895 MPa (100 lb/in.2), 3.448 MPa (500 lb/in.2), and 6.895 MPa (1000 Ib/in. 2) at a weld time of one hour. Alternatively at a stress of 3.448 MPa, the effect of varying weld time is shown in Fig. 7B. These CDFs were then fitted to the following functional form using a nonlinear least squares algorithm:


where A and B are parameters and err is the error function.

The resulting fitted CDFs were differ- entiated to get the corresponding PDFs, as shown in Fig. 8A and B. Figures 8A and B show PDFs with equivalent weld quality shown on the abscissa. This quality was calculated as follows:

for any given pore size, a

porosity fraction = -- d

equivalent weld quality = 1 a

-porosity fraction = 1 - - - d (7)

As weld quality improves, the PDFs become more sharply peaked - - a phenomenon ob- served in actual production situations (Ref. 30). It is, therefore, seen that even a simple mechanistic pore closure model, when com- bined with the probabilistic framework pro- posed herein, produces results representa- tive of production situations. The link to impact strength is equally important and will now be established.

Statistical Models for Composite Strength and Their Applicability to Modeling Impact Strength for Diffusion Welded Components

The strength model used is due to Phoenix and Beyerlein (Refs. 31, 32), who developed a series of probabilistic models for the failure of composites by consider- ing load-sharing effects, random strength flaws, and clustering of failure sites. One model in particular (Ref. 31) predicts the CDFfor strength ofa 1-D "weld line" con- sisting of an initial distribution of intact welded ligaments and broken ligaments or pores. This model may also be used to model impact tests performed on diffu- sion welded Ti-6AI-4V because (Ref. 33) of the following:

• High strain rate or high rate of load-


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0.5 f

0.4 0.97 0.975 0.98 0,985 0,99

blet~llogml~ie Bond Q~li ty

• Tapered load sharing is assumed: a pore distributes of the load it would have carried to the nearest neighbor and Y3 to the next- nearest neighbor.

• Local failure configurations are considered in detail for a 1-D lattice, and their probabilities

0.995 o f occurrence are determined.

• The distribu- tion function for strength is esti- mated with special attention to the as- ymptotic behavior for large numbers

of ligaments. The principal result used in this work is

given by Equation 78b from Ref. 31, which gives the strength of a 1-D lattice in the asymptotic limit for large lattice sizes.

Fig. 1 0 - Comparison between Equation 9 (solid line) and data for diffusion welds in Ti-6AI-4k'.

ing is conducive to brittle fracture. • Brittle fracture can more readily

occur in materials with low notch tough- ness such as high-strength Ti-alloys.

• The presence of flaws such as resid- ual weld-interface porosity exacerbates the tendency towards brittle fracture and leads to variations in strength from one weld to another. It is, therefore, a reasonable approxima- tion to apply a probabilistic failure model developed for composites to the case of in- terest here.

The strength model used in this work is based on the clustering of defects (pores) and the effect of such clusters on compo- nent strength. The model, therefore, em- phasizes the local interaction among de- fects as eventually resulting in global failure. To understand just how quickly pore clustering develops, consider a sim- ple numerical experiment on a 1-D lattice. Suppose each point is a welded ligament or a pore as schematically shown in Fig. 9A. Now consider what happens when porosity is introduced at random sites with a probability of occurrence ranging from 0.001 to 0.02. The resulting CDFs showing the nearest neighbor spacing are shown in Fig. 9B. It is seen the pore spacing decays very rapidly as the porosity level increases and the number of clustered pores goes up significantly.

The detailed derivation for the strength model is beyond the scope of this article but is found in Refs. 31 and 32. The essential concepts are as follows:

• The diffusion weld is a lattice of in- tact and broken ligaments; the broken lig- aments are pores.

• A 1-D row of weld ligaments is con- sidered with probabilityp that a weld liga- ment will be intact (full strength) and probability 1-p = q that it will be a pore (nil strength).

failure l oad~ -ln(q2~) In(n)

S= ~qq +q / 2 (8)

where n is the lattice size of weld liga- ments, q is the probability of occurrence of a pore, and ~ is the solution of a charac- teristic equation describing certain key local failure configurations (clustering of defects).

At some residual porosity level the weld impact properties approach that of base metal. For the Ti-6AI-4V diffusion welds herein, this is experimentally found to be approximately 0.1%, or q = 0.001. The quantity of interest is therefore the failure load in comparison to that of base material, namely the ratio

L " /dq=O.O01 (9)

This ratio Q is the weld quality as deter- mined by impact testing and is related through Equations 10 and 11 to the metal- lographic weld quality, namely 1-q. Also note this equation is independent of the size of the welded area. The result of plotting Equation 9 against actual data from diffu- sion welds made in Ti-6AI-4V is shown in Fig. 10. The material used was AMS 4928 with welding conditions as follows: weld pressures of 1.379-13.79 MPa (200-2000 lb/in.2), time of 1-3 hours, and tempera- tures of 871°C-982°C (1600°F-1800°F). It is

seen that Equation 9 models the relation- ship between metallographic quality and impact quality reasonably well. The most significant limitation of the current strength model is it is 1-D.


This work has extended current mod- eling approaches for diffusion welding by implementing the following:

1) A probabilistic framework tracking the evolution of porosity distributions and incorporating the effects of weld process parameters and manufacturing process at- tributes

2) This modeling framework allows mechanistically-based pore closure mod- els to be effectively applied to real manu- facturing situations

3) The probabilistic pore closure mod- eling approach realistically describes the evolution of metallographic weld quality as observed in manufacturing practice, namely that as the weld quality improves the PDF, representing metallographic weld quality, becomes more narrowly dis- tributed about its mean

4) A probabilistic failure model is used to successfully model the relationship be- tween metallographic weld quality and im- pact weld quality as measured by fraction of base metal impact strength

The modeling framework presented here therefore accomplishes the said ob- jective of linking weld impact strength and weld process attributes through a proba- bilistic treatment of the evolution of porosity distributions. The approach is general and may be used with any pore closure model. Future work required to further validate this modeling approach includes additional experimental verifica- tion and utilization of other pore closure models such as those by Derby and Wal- lach (Refs. 11-14) and Hill and Wallach (Ref. 15). Additionally, a method of ex- tracting 2-D and 3-D surface topography parameters directly from measurements is desirable, going beyond simple notions of R a and capturing higher dimensional fea- tures of real surfaces. Other uses for the model include performing various trade- off studies. For example, for a certain re- quired level of weld quality, a constrained optimization problem examines tradeoffs between pressure, temperature, time, and surface finish.


The Los Alamos authors would like to acknowledge the support of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the University of California, which operates Los Alamos National Laboratory for DoE under con- tract W-7405-ENG-36. The authors also

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wish to thank R. D. Dixon for his critical review of the manuscript .


1. Cogan, R. M., and Shamblem, C. E. 1969. Development of a manufacturing process for fabricated diffusion bonded hollow blades. Technical Report AFML-TR-69-219.

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5. King, W. H., and Owczarski, W. A. 1968. Additional studies on the diffusion welding of titanium. WeMingJouma147(10): 444-s to 450-s.

6. Kellerer, H., and Milacek, L. H. 1970. Welding Journal 49(5): 219-s.

7. Hamilton, C. H. 1973. Pressure require- ments for diffusion bonding titanium. 2nd Intl. C o n f on T i t a n i u m Sc i ence a n d TechnoloBy , e d s .

R. I. Jaffee and H. M. Burte, pp. 625-648. Plenum Press.

8. Garmong, G., Paton, N. E., and Argon, A. S. 1975. Attainment of full interfacial contact during diffusion bonding. Metallurgical Trans- actionsA, 6A(6): 1269-1279.

9. Coble, R. L. 1970. Diffusion models for hot pressing with surface energy and pressure effects as driving forces. J. of Applied Physics 41(12): 4798-4807.

10. Wilkinson, D. S., and Ashby, M. E 1975. Pressure sintering by power law creep. Acta Metallurgica 23(11): 1277-1285.

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12. Derby, B., and Wallach, E.R. 1984. Dif- fusion bonding: development of theoretical model. Metal Science 18(9): 427-431.

13. Derby, B., and Wallach, E. R. 1984. Dif- fusion bonds in copper. J. of Materials Science 19: 3140-3148.

14. Derby, B., and Wallach, E. R. 1984. Dif- fusion bonds in iron and a low-alloy steel. J. of Materials Science 19:3149-3158.

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16. Pilling, J., Livesey, D. W., Hawkward, J. B., and Ridley, N. 1984. Solid state bonding in superplastic Ti-6AI-4V. Metal Science 18(3): 117-122.

17. Guo, Z. X., and Ridley, N. 1987. Model- ing of diffusion bonding of metals. Materials Science and Technology 3(11 ): 945-953.

18. Takahashi, Y., and Inoue, K. 1992. Re- cent void shrinkage models and their applica- bility to diffusion bonding. Materials Science

and Technology 8(11): 953-964. 19. Grigor'evskii, V. I., and Karakozov, E. S.

1983. Method of reducing the residual strains in components of titanium alloys in diffusion bonding. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 30(2): 19- 21.

20. Peshkov, V. V., Rodionov, V .N., and Nikgolov, M. B. 1985. Diffusion bonding of ti- tanium with low stored strain in bonded com- ponents. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 32(9): 19-21.

21. Nikgolov, M. B., Peshkov, V. V., and Ro- dionov, V. N. 1986. Relationships governing formation of the microrelief on the surface of titanium alloys in diffusion bonding conditions. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 33(3): 45-47.

22. Karakozov, E. S., Ternovskii, A. E, and Lavrov, B. A. 1983. Effect of the rolling texture on the formation of the bond in diffusion bond- ing titanium alloys. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 30(7): 39-4 1.

23. Peshkov, V. V., Milyutin, V. N., and Podoprikhin, M. N. 1984. Interaction of tita- nium with residual gases in the evacuated space in conditions of diffusion bonding. Welding Pro- duction (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 31(2): 21-23.

24. Peshkov, V. V., Kholodov, V. P., and Vorontsov, E. S. 1985. Kinetics of dissolution of oxide films in titanium in diffusion bonding. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 32(4): 49-51.

25. Peshkov, V. V., Podoprikhin, M. N., and Milyutin, V. N. 1984. Effect of oxide films on the interaction between contact surfaces in diffu- sion bonding of titanium. Welding Production (Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo) 30(12): 8-9.

26. Ohsumi, M., Kiyotou, S.-I. and, Sakamoto, M. 1985. The application of diffu- sion welding to aircraft titanium alloys. Trans. of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan 25(6): 513-520.

27. Schey, .J.A. 1987. bltroduction to Manu- facturing Processes, 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Co.,

28. Larson, H. J. 1982. Introduction to Prob- ability Theory and Statistical h~ference, 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.

29. Hildebrand, E B. 1974. huroduction to Numerical Analysis, 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: Dover Publications, Inc.,

30. Private Communication, 1999. United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, Conn.

31. Phoenix, S. L., and Beyerlein, I. J. 2000. Distribution and size scalings for strength in a one-dimensional lattice with load redistribu- tion to nearest and next-nearest neighbors. Physical Review E 62(2): 1622-1645.

32. Phoenix, S. L., and Beyerlein, I. J. 2001. Statistical strength theory for fibrous compos- ite materials. Comprehensive Composites 1. Edited by T. W. Chou and C. Zweben. Perga- mon Press, pp. 559-639.

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Book Co., 34. Metropolis, N., and Clam, S. 1949. The

Monte Carlo method. J. of the American Statis- tical Association, 44(247): 335-341.

35. Shreider, Y. A., ed. 1966. The Monte Carlo Method-- The Method of Statistical Trials. 1996. Edited by Y. A. Schreider Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon Press.


A Concise Overview of the Monte Carlo Method

The Mon te Carlo me thod of statistical t r ials was i n v e n t e d at Los A l a m o s Na-

Draw random number r* on interval [0,I]

UsingselectEquationan X* A I, [

Using X* ~ input to calculation in question

to get X;*

1 Using N calculated values.

tabulate histogram representing PDF for X/*

Average M histograms to get final predicted PDF for Xf*


Fig. A1 - - Flowchart of Monte Carlo computa- tional approach.

t ional Labora to ry (Refs. 34, 35) to solve complex physical p roblems in an era be- fore powerful computers . The me thod as- sumes the exis tence of a set of r a n d o m n u m b e r s and a set of p robab i l i t i e s de- scribing the occur rence of given events . Suppose there are j such discrete events, each with probabil i ty of occurrence pj. If we assume at least one of these even ts must occur, then

J Z p ) =1

J=/ (A1 /

If the probabi l i t ies are a r ranged on the in- terval [0,1], and if we choose a r a n d o m n u m b e r r on the same interval, then the


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Monte Carlo method assumes event j is "selected" if

j-I j Z p n <r< Z p n n=l n=l (A2)

This is also known as a "roulette wheel" method of selection.

In this work, we take the limit as the bin size or the width of the slots on the roulette wheel get very small and the dis- tribution of probabilities on the interval [0,1] becomes continuous. Then, for a given random variable X, we assume the value X* is selected for the calculation if

for a given random number r*

X* is chosen if r*= CDFx(X*) (A3)

The flowchart in Fig. A1 schematically shows what happens after the selection process. The value of X* is taken as an input to the problem, e.g., the ODE de- scribing pore closure. In that case, the final pore diameter XI.* is the output. The selection process is then repeated and a new final pore size is calculated and so on.

This is repeated for N trials, and M runs of N trials are done to get adequate aver- aging statistics. The PDF for the final pore

size Xf* is assembled by tabulating the M histograms from each run and averaging them. This can be repeated for various ini- tial pore size distributions and values of the process variables to completely char- acterize the way in which the final pore size distribution evolves as a function of manufacturing process attributes. Al- though the case shown here is for only one random variable, the more general case of multiple random variables can also be handled by the Monte Carlo method. For example, pressure, temperature, and even material properties could all be repre- sented by distribution functions in the same manner as initial pore size.

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• Why was the work done? • What was done? • What was found? • What is the significance of your results? • What are your most important conclusions? With those questions in mind, most authors can

logically organize their material along the following lines, using suitable headings and subheadings to divide the )aper.

1) Abstract. A concise summary of the major elements of the presentation, not exceeding 200 words, to help the reader decide if the information is for him or her.

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3) Experimental Procedure, Materials, Equipment. 4) Results, Discussion. The facts or data obtained

and their evaluation. 5) Conclusion. An evaluation and interpretation of

your results. Most often, this is what the readers remember.

6) Acknowledgment, References and Appendix.

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Selection of Schedules Based on Heat Balance in Resistance Spot Welding

A theory that takes into account heat input in the fusion zone, HAZ, and electrode indention was used to develop schedules for

welding combinations of uneven sheet thicknesses


ABSTRACT. It is impossible to make a complete list of welding schedules in re- sistance spot welding because of the large number of possibilities of sheet combina- tions. Therefore, the welding parameters chosen for a particular welding operation are largely dependent on the experience of the operator, although some guidelines are available. The difficulty in schedule se- lection arises from the number of interde- pendent parameters involved, such as dif- ferent sheet thickness combinations, different material properties of the sheets, welding current and welding time, elec- trode face diameter, electrode force, etc. There are a number of efforts attempting to develop systematic procedures for welding schedule selection, such as the law of thermal similarity, yet none of them has been widely accepted, primarily due to the fact that the schedules produced by these procedures are often proven inadequate.

In this study, a new method is proposed for selecting welding schedules based on the heat balance in welding. A theoretical de- rivation of welding parameters is conducted using a "characteristic" thickness, instead of the physical thickness of sheets. This thick- ness consists of the effects and contribu- tions of electrode indentation, heat- affected zone, and fusion zone. The theory has been verified by welding low-carbon steel sheets of uneven thickness.


Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a major sheet metal joining process in many industries, such as the automotive, appli- ance, and aerospace industies. Resistance welding was invented by Elihu Thomson in 1877 (Ref. 1) and has grown enormously since the first steel welded automobile was introduced in 1933 (Ref. 1). Resistance spot welding has become the predominant means for auto body assembly, with an average of two to five thousand spots on each passenger car produced (Ref. 1).

S. A G A S H E and H. Z H A N G are with Mechani- cal Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University o f Toledo, Toledo. Ohio.

In resistance spot welding, a primary concern for a practitioner is to select cor- rect welding schedules. A welding schedule is a set of welding parameters, such as weld- ing current, weld time, electrode force, and electrode face diameter, which would pro- duce a weld with desired features, such as certain geometric dimensions, weld strength, etc. The Resistance Welder Man- ufacturers' Association (RWMA) (Ref. 2) offers weld schedules and many other rec- ommended practices are available for this purpose. Most of the weld schedules are empirically developed. Although they are very useful in finding good weld schedules for even-thickness welding, schedules for welding uneven-thickness sheets are gener- ally developed by and practiced within in- dividual manufacturers. Because even- thickness combinations are rarely used in practice, there is clearly a practical need of welding schedules for uneven-thickness combinations. Both theoretical and com- bined theoretical-empirical methods have been employed for systematically deter- mining welding schedules. The common techniques used in this respect are summa- rized below.

The Law of Thermal Similarity

The law of thermal similarity (LOTS) has been commonly used in the automo- tive industry in Japan to develop resis- tance welding schedules (Ref. 3). It is based on a heat flow analysis, which at- tempts to make the temperature distribu- tions in various weld thicknesses similar. The LOTS has been used to develop


Resistance Welding Weld Schedule Heat Balance Spot Welding Uneven Thickness Sheet Metal

schedules to obtain desirable temperature profiles based on the known data, i.e., to extrapolate the results obtained from known standard specimens for predicting the tempera ture profile for a different combination of sheet stack up (Ref. 4). It gives a relationship between the distance and time that makes the temperature dis- tributions similar for different thickness stack ups. It has been mostly used as a guideline for choosing welding schedules for thick sheets based on those verified for thin sheets.

The law of thermal similarity states that similar temperature profiles will be produced if the weld time is proportional to the square of the sheet thickness (Ref. 4), or

t ~ h 2 (1)

i.e., if the welding time is t I for a sheet of thickness hi , then n2tl is the time needed to weld a sheet of thickness n x h/. The total weld time is determined by the total thickness of the stack up and the thinnest outer sheet determines the maximum du- ration of any weld pulse. Other welding parameters can be derived similarly.

In general, when the plate thickness and diameter of the electrodes are magni- fied byn times, the welding time should be increased to n 2 times and the current den- sity decreased to n times in order to have the new temperature distribution similar to the original one (Refs. 3, 5).

Le th l (h2), de1 (de2), 81 (82), andt l (t 2) be the thickness, electrode diameter, cur- rent density, and welding time, respec- tively, of the original sheet stack up (the new sheet stack up). Then, the tempera- ture distributions for the two stack ups are similar if (Ref. 3)

h 2 = n x h I (2)

de 2 = n x de I (3)

82 = (1/n) x 81 (4)

t 2 = n 2 × t I (5)

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Table 1 - - Welds M a d e with Di f ferent Schedu les

Sheet Source LOTS Electrode W e l d i n g W e l d i n g Electrode Weld Thickness of Weld Factor Diameter Current Time Force Diameter (mm) Schedule n (mm) (A) (ms/cycles) (kg/lb) (mm)

0.75 Handbook 6.35 10500 150/9 227/500 6.10 (Ref. 6) LOTS from 0.62 4.41 8367 77/4.6 136/299 3.2 1.21 LOTS from 0.40 3.15 6547 45/2.68 93/204 2.89 1.89

1.21 Handbook 7.11 13500 200/12 354/80 7.07 (Ref. 6) LOTS from 1.61 10.24 16940 390/23.43 590/1301 7.76 0.75 LOTS from 0.64 5.08 10563 116/6.97 242/532 3.4 1.89

1.89 Handbook 7.94 16500 283/17 590/1300 8.01 (Ref. 6) LOTS from 2.52 16.00 26460 953/57.15 1440/3175 11.3 0.75 LOTS from 1.56 11.11 21086 488/29.28 863/1903 10.8 1.21

Expulsion Surface Occurrence Condition

No Good

No Good

No Good

No Good

Very Heavy Damaged

No Good

No Good

Very Heavy Damaged

Very Heavy Damaged

Indentat ion: q l

H A Z : q2 ~ . ~ h l

Nugget : q3 i h2

Nugget : q4 ~ ~ " ] ~ h 4

i H d e A ~ n : a ~ o n ~ ~ ~ " Q h 6

Fig. 1 - - Partition of zones in a weldment for heat calculation, q = heat (Joules), h = thickness (mm).

Limitations of the Law of Thermal Similarity

Although the law of thermal similarity may theoretically yield similar tempera- ture profiles for different stack ups, many of the welds obtained by the authors using the LOTS schedules were either under- sized or with heavy expulsion. As the pur- pose of the LOTS is mainly for obtaining an understanding of the RSW process, its use for predicting schedules for actual welding practice is limited. The law does not hold well in welding sheets of dissimi- lar thicknesses as it only considers the total thickness of the stack up and does not account for the individual thicknesses of the sheets. The LOTS does not consider the effect of the actual heat input to make a weld. A welding experiment carried out by the authors on uncoated mild carbon steel highlights the differences between handbook-suggested schedules and those predicted by the LOTS, as seen in Table 1.

In Table 1, three materials of different thickness were welded using schedules ob- tained from the Welding Handbook (Ref. 6) and from the LOTS. The schedules based on LOTS for welding a particular thickness are derived from the schedules for welding the other two materials (se- lected using the schedules from the Weld- ing H a n d b o o k (Ref. 6). For instance, a schedule for welding 0.75-mm steel can be obtained directly from the Welding Hand- book (Ref. 6) (first row of Table 1), or it can be derived using LOTS based on proven schedules (provided by the Welding Handbook) (Ref. 6) on 1.21-mm steel and 1.89-mm steel (second and third rows of Table 1). A good welding schedule is de- fined as the one that yields a large weld without expulsion. It can be clearly seen that there is a large difference between the weld schedules suggested by the Welding Handbook (Ref. 6) and those predicted by the LOTS; and the former are usually more realistic and yield significantly better

welds than the latter. Due to the limita- tions mentioned above, the LOTS cannot be directly used for practical welding as it was not intended for such a purpose in the first place.

A new theory is proposed in this work to overcome some of these limitations. The weld schedules predicted as per the new theory are based on heat balance equations and are, therefore, closer than the LOTS to the actual physical welding conditions. Besides providing more accu- rate welding schedules, the theory can ac- commodate different sheet thicknesses in a single stack up, and is thus closer to the practical welding scenario.

Heat Balance

In RSW, heat balance can be defined as a condition in which the fusion zones on both pieces being joined undergo approx- imately the same degree of heating and pressure application (Ref. 7). It describes the ideal situation when a symmetric weld (with equal depth of nugget penetration) is made. Heat balance is influenced by the relative thermal and electrical conductivi- ties of the materials to be joined, the geometry of the weldment, the thermal and electrical conductivities, and the geometry of the electrodes.

A heat balance can be achieved if two identical sheets are welded together with electrodes of equal mass and contour and heat is generated in both the pieces uni- formly, with an oval-shaped weld cross section. However, if one of the pieces has higher electric resistivity than the other, heat will be generated more rapidly in this piece, resulting in a less-than-perfect weld depending upon the amount of heat im- balance. In the case of dissimilar metals,

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such as when welding plain carbon steel to stainless steel, this dissimilarity can be compensated for by increasing the elec- trode contact area on the high-resistivity stainless steel side, or by using an elec- trode material of higher resistance on the low-resistivity carbon steel side. In the case of similar metals of unequal thick- ness, proper heat balance can be achieved by using a smaller contacting electrode area on the thinner sheet, with short times and high current densities (Refs. 7, 8).

Proposed Theory

The basic idea of the theory proposed in this work is that the total heat needed to create a weldment can be partitioned into those needed for the fusion zone, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the in- dented area, where significant amount of heat is required. Instead of considering the thickness of the entire stack up (as by the LOTS), the heat input into each of the zones of the stack up is accounted for. Therefore, rather than treating it as an en- tity, the weldment is split into different zones for heat calculation. Such a division is necessary when the sheets have differ- ent thicknesses, material properties, etc. So, for a two-sheet stack up, there are two nugget zones at the center, surrounded on either side by a heat-affected zone and an outer indentation zone, as shown in Fig. 1.

The basic equation for heat calculation during heating a solid or a liquid is

Q = m x CpxAT (6)

where m is the mass, Cp is the specific heat of the material, and AT is the change in temperature due to heating. Each zone is idealized as a short cylinder for simplicity. For instance, assuming the HAZ has the same diameter as the electrode face, the mass of the HAZ can be expressed as

/t 2 m = - - x d e x h x p 4 (7)

where de is the electrode diameter, h is the height of the HAZ, and p is the density of the sheet. Then the heat in the HAZ can be calculated using Equation 6.

The heat components can be calcu- lated once the mass, thermal properties, and the possible maximum temperature increases are known. The volumes of var- ious zones in a weldment are generally dif- ferent. However, an assumption that the zones are (short) cylinders of the same di- ameter but different heights is made in this study for simplicity. Actually, their di- ameters are not much different for a well- controlled grown weld. The electrode di- ameter d e can be used as the diameter of

all the zones (cylinders). A nominal value was used for d e as their sizes usually vary during welding, and the size of a weld is desired to be close to that of the elec- trodes. For the indentation, heat is ac- counted for by assuming two (empty) cylinders of indentation experience a heating from room temperature up to (but below) melting temperature. It comprises the contribution from both sides of the weldment

ql = ~--d 2 plCpl hlZlT I 4 el (8)

q6 = ff~-d 2 P2C p2 h6AT6 4 e2 (9)

w h e r e AT 1 = AT 6 = Tree h - Tamb, the dif- f e r e n c e between the melting temperature and room temperature, de] and de2 are the face diameters of the electrodes on both sides, Cpl and Cp6 are the specific heats of the respective materials, and h I and h 6 are the depths of indentations, respectively, for the upper and lower sheets.

Similarly for the heat-affected zone, the heat inputs on both sides are

q2 = ~ d 2 plCp] h2AT 2 4 el (10)

q5 =~--d 2 p2Cp2h5dT5 4 e2 (11)

where AT 2 = AT 5 = Tn,ei t - Tam b and d e is the electrode diameter, which is used as an approximation for the diameter of the HAZ.

The solid-liquid phase transformation takes place in the nugget zone, and the heat input during melting needs to be cal- culated separately. The heat of the nugget includes that required for heating the metal from room temperature to the melt- ing point, the latent heat required for melting, and the heat needed to raise the temperature beyond the melting point of the metal. The density and specific heat are different for each stage. However, the specific heat was found to be almost iden- tical for all three stages, and hence can be assumed constant.


q3= trd2h3IP'Cpl(T'nett-Y "''b)+ ,1

4 "' (Tm x - T,,,.,)J (12)

= ,'r d2 h4[P2Cpz(T,nelt-Ta,,,b) q4 4 e2


be the heat input to the two halves of the nugget, where h 3 and h 4 are the heights of

the fusion zone in each sheet, P'l and P'2 are the liquid densities at melting temper- ature, P"l and P"2 are the average densi- ties, C'pl and C'p2 are the average specific heats of the liquid between Tma x and Tmelt , and L¢l and LI2 are the latent heats of fu- sion.

The total heat used to make the weld- ment = q = q l + q 2 + q 3 + q 4 + q 5 + q6, or

q = ~_d 2 PlCpl hIATI 4 el

+--rid2 piCt, h2AT2 + ~ d 2 h 3 4 e] 4 el

1 + -

I + - - d - h4/ - t ~|

4 e2 LPSLy,.+p'~G,_[rm~,_T,,,e,,) j /'~ 2

+ 4de2 P2Cp2 h5AT5


Based on the heat components calcu- lated, a characteristic dimension H is de- fined as

H =h I q l + h 2 q 2 + h 3 q 3 q q q

+h4 q4 + hS q5 + h6 q6

q q q (15)

This characteristic dimension is used in- stead of the actual thickness of the entire stack up (as used in the LOTS) as it dif- ferentiates the contributions of various re- gions in an actual heating process. Al- though they are closely related in the physical process, his (i = 1...6) are inde- pendently defined, and they can be altered independently to obtain the desired fea- tures of a weldment.

This theory was verified in the case of developing welding schedules for uneven- thickness sheet stack ups. The first step is to develop good schedules for welding even-thickness sheet stack ups. One can use proven, good welding schedules for equal thickness sheets, such as those listed in the Welding Handbook (Ref. 6). The schedules for welding uneven-thicknesses can then be developed using those for welding even-thickness sheets and this theory.

For even thickness stack up, the weld time, welding current, electrode force, and electrode diameters were chosen from the Welding Handbooks (Refs. 6, 7), as shown in Table 2.

For a sheet stack up, the heat input needed for making a weldment is propor-

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' : W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H ....

Table 2 - - Welding Handbook Schedules for Uncoated Low-Carbon Steel Sheets (Refs. 6, 7)

Sheet Welding Weld Electrode Electrode Thickness Current Time Force Diameter (mm) (A) (ms/eye) (kg/lb) (mm)

0.508 8500 117/7 181/400 4.78 0.635 9500 133/8 204/450 4.78 0.762 10500 150/9 227/500 6.35 0.889 11500 150/9 272/600 6.35 1.016 12500 167/10 317/700 6.35 1.143 13000 183/11 340/750 6.35 1.270 13500 200/12 363/800 7.92 1.397 14000 217/13 408/900 7.92 1.524 15000 233/14 454/1000 7.92 1.778 16000 267/16 544/1200 7.92 2.032 17000 300/18 635/1400 7.92 2.286 18000 333/20 726/1600 9.53 2.667 19500 383/23 816/1800 9.53 3.048 21000 467/28 952/2100 9.53

tional to the square of welding current, weld time, and the resistance offered by the sheet material (Ref. 8)

qo~ I 2 x R x z (16)

The resistance in turn can be assumed pro- portional to the characteristic dimension of the stack up and inversely proportional to the square of the nugget diameter, as assumed by other researchers (Ref. 9)


H n ~ - -

d2 (17)

q ~ I2 x H-H--xz

de 2 (18)

The derivation of these equations does not consider the heat loss through the elec- trodes and sheets (a variable during weld- ing), which is obviously an approximation, as this heat takes a large portion of the total heat generated during welding. Only the total heat needed to create various di- mensions of a weldment is taken into con- sideration in this study.

Consider a case of two-sheet welding. Let 11, H1, "~1, de1, and F 1 be the current, characteristic dimension, time, nugget di- ameter, and electrode force, respectively, for one stack up, and 12,//2,/:2, de2, and F 2 be the current, characteristic dimension, time, nugget diameter, and electrode force, respectively, for another stack up. Based on the assumption the amount of heat needed to make the uneven-thick- ness welding is the sum of one-half of that for thin even-thickness welding and one- half of that for thick even-thickness weld-

ing, the parameters for uneven-thickness welding can be approximated as

H 3 =

12xHI xr , 122 xH: x r 2 ÷

d 2 d 2 e I e2

112 xr I 122 xz 2 ÷

d 2 d 2 el e2 (19)

Z" 3

12 x H I x r I 12 2 x H 2 x Z 2 ÷

d 2 d 2 e 1 e2


I ? x H l x r I Jr 1 2 x H 2 x r 2

d 2 d 2 e 1 e2

H 3 x "(3 × + .42

\ el e2 (21)

As the electrode force is proportional to the square of the electrode diameter to keep a constant pressure (Ref. 8),

F ,~ d 2 (22)


F 3 -

F l F 2 +

2 2 d d

el e2

1 1

2 2 d d

el e2 (23)

The temperature in the weldment is as- sumed proportional to the heat generated, and inversely proportional to the charac- teristic thickness and the square of the electrode diameter (Ref. 9) when the welds formed are similar

T ~ q H x d ff (24)

As the zones in a weldment are assumed similar to their counterparts in the indi- vidual welds, Equation 24 can be used to approximate the temperature of a weld- ment. Let ql and q2 be the total heat con- tent of the two stacks, then, for the com- bination stack up, the heat content q3 is given by

q3 =

ql ~ q2

H 1 xd 2 H 2 ×d 2 e 1 e2

/±+1 !X/d H d 2

k el e2 (25) Experiment

Experiments were carried out to verify the theory and prove it suitable for use as a guideline for selecting welding schedules not listed in the Welding Handbook. The ex- periments were conducted on a resistance spot welding machine equipped with a pro- grammable weld control unit. A 35-KVA transformer was used along with a"C" type gun. The raw material used was bare mild carbon steel sheets of 14- (0.75-mm), 18- (1.21-mm), and 22- (1.89-mm) gauge of ASTM A569 and ASTM A366 grade.

Ambient temperature = 27°C, melting point for mild steel = 1535°C, maximum temperature reached was assumed to be 1735°C (with 200°C overheating), specific heat of mild steel = 252914.79 J/kg°C, la- tent heat of fusion = 241585.5 J/kg, the av- erage density of mild steel between room temperature (27°C) and melting tempera- ture (1535°C) is 7470 kg/m 3, (liquid) den- sity at 1535°C = 7190 kg/m 3, density at 1735°C = 6991 kg/m 3 (Refs. 10-12). Sev- eral sets of welds were made with the cal- culated schedules based on the schedules for even-thickness sheet welding listed in the Welding Handbook (Ref. 6). The welds were peel tested and the weld diameter was measured. Samples were prepared for metallographic examination and measur- ing various dimensions. With the help of these measured dimensions, the welding parameters for other sheets were pre- dicted using the equations of the proposed theory. Then using these predicted weld parameters, new sets of welds were made,

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Table 3 - - E x p e r i m e n t Resul t s

Expt No. Thickness Electrode Welding (mm) Diameter Current

(mm) (A)

1 I).75 + 0.75 6.35 9750 2 1.21 + 1.21 7.14 13500 Prediction 0.75 + 1.21 6.35/7.14 11557 3 0.75 + 1.21 6.35/7.14 10500

Weld Time Electrode Heat C h a r a c . Minimum Average (ms/cyc) Force (Joules) Thickness Weld Diameter Weld Diameter

(kg/lb) (mm) (mm) .... (mm)

150/9 227/500 840095 0.468 3.43 5.302 2110/12 354/780 1416971 0.749 4.58 7 180/10.81 283 /624 1205616 0.656 3.43 - - 183/11 286/630 1135177 0.665 3.43 5.9

(a) The minimum weld size required as listed in the Welding Handbook (Ref 6)

and the procedure was repeated. Finally, the weld parameters obtained from weld- ing schedules predicted by the proposed theory were compared with those ob- tained in actual welding.

Results and Discussion

First, even-thickness sheets of 0.75 and 1.21 mm thicknesses were welded, with schedules very close to the ones given in the Welding Handbook (Ref. 6). The weld diameter was measured, and microscopic observations revealed the thicknesses of various zones for calculating the charac- teristic dimensions. From this data, weld schedules for a stack of 0.75- + 1.21- mm sheets were predicted using the equations of the proposed theory. Welding using these schedules yielded the expected weld sizes without expulsion. The results are tabulated in Table 3.

In Table 3, the current in the experi- ment (No. 3) was searched, based on the predicted value, to obtain a similar char- acteristic height as the predicted. This practice was to show that a characteristic height (and, therefore, a weldment) can be created in welding using schedules de- rived by the theory. The table reveals the experimental results obtained for the un- even-thickness combination are in good agreement with those predicted by the theory. The welding schedules predicted by the proposed theory yielded a good weld in terms of size and surface quality. Several additional tests were carried out to further verify the results of the pro- posed theory and build a confidence in- terval on its ability to predict correct weld schedules.

Using the same welding schedule, sev- eral welds were made and the weld size was measured to establish a variance on the weld diameter. The variance on the mean diameter of the welds was found to be very small (P-a = 4.93, t~ 2 = 0.0514).

With all other weld parameters kept constant, the weld time was varied over a range. It was confirmed the weld by the se- lected schedule had the largest size with- out expulsion. Weld times below the se- lected one resulted in undersize welds, while weld times above the chosen one led to expulsion.

With all other weld parameters kept constant, the weld current was varied over a range. It also proved that the weld cur- rent at the schedule selected gave the largest nugget size without expulsion. Again, lower than selected currents gave a smaller weld button while expulsion oc- curred for higher currents.

Experiments have shown the predicted welding parameters used are optimized to have the largest weld diameter without ex- pulsion. The parameters can be predicted with 98% confidence. Thus the theory helps to predict welding schedules for un- even-thickness sheets with good accuracy and ease for practical use.


A new theory based on heat balance was proposed for developing schedules in welding uneven-thickness sheet combina- tions. It takes into account the heat input into the fusion zone, the HAZ, and the electrode indentation and uses basic pro- portionality equations to reflect their con- tributions in welding to predict the weld- ing parameters. The proposed theory was verified experimentally, and it provides a simple guideline for selecting weld sched- ules for uneven-thickness, two-sheet metal welding, based on those of even- thickness schedules. The theory and the procedure can be implemented in a pro- duction environment and can serve as a ready reference for choosing welding pa- rameters on the shop floor.


This work was partially supported by the University Research Awards and Fel- lowships grant (URAF 480308) of The University of Toledo.


1. Li, W. 1999. Monitoring and diagnosis of resistance spot welding process. Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan.

2. Resistance Welding Manual. 1989. Resis- tance Welder Manufacturers' Association (RWMA), 4th ed.

3. Okuda, T. 1973. Spot welding of thick plates, part 1: The law of thermal similarity,

Yosetsu Gujutsi, Japanese WeMing Society, 21 (9).

4. Fong, M., Tsang, A., and Anantha- narayanan, A. 2000. Development of the law of thermal similarity (LOTS) for low indentation cosmetic resistance welds. Sheet Metal Welding Conference IX, Paper 5-6, Detroit, Mich.

5. Ando, K., and Nakamura, T. 1957. On the thermal time constant in resistance spot weld- ing: report 1. Japanese Welding Society, 26 (9).

6. Welding Processes. We, lding Handbook, 8th ed., Vol. 2, 1991. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.

7. Welding Handbook, 2nd ed., 1942. New York, N.Y.: American Welding Society.

8. Welding Technology. Welding Handbook, 8th ed., Vol. 1, 1987. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.

9. Matsuyama, K., and Chun, J. 2000. A study of splashing mechanism in resistance spot welding. Sheet Metal Welding Conference IX, Paper 5-4, Detroit, Mich.

10. Alloys. Handbook of Thermophysical Properties of Solid Materials, Vol. 2, 1961. Edited by A. Goldsmith., T. Waterman, and H. Hirschhorn.

11. Metals Handbook, 1984. Edited by H. Boyer and T Gall. Materials Park, Ohio: Amer- ican Society for Metals International.

12. Cezairliyan, A., and Anderson, A. Spe- cific Heat of Solids, 1988. Edited by C. Ho. New York, N.Y.: Hemisphere Pub. Corp.


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Liquation Cracking in Partial-Penetration Aluminum Welds: Effect of Penetration

Oscillation and Backfilling Surprisingly, the papillary- (nipple-) type penetration common in aluminum welds

can oscillate along the weld and promote cracking that can be difficult to eliminate with filler metals


ABSTRACT. Aluminum alloys are sus- ceptible to liquation cracking in the par- tially melted zone (PMZ), where grain boundary (GB) liquation occurs during welding. Liquation cracking near the weld root in partial-penetration aluminum welds was investigated. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) with Ar shielding was conducted on binary AI-Cu Alloy 2219. Filler metals of various Cu and Si contents were used, including 1100, 2319, 4145, 4047, and 2319 plus extra Cu. The results were as follows. First, the papillary type penetration common in aluminum GMAW was observed and it oscillated up and down, resulting in a wavy weld root along the weld. Second, liquation cracking was observed in welds with penetration os- cillation but not in welds without. Third, li- quation cracking most often occurred in between waves of the wavy weld root. Fourth, changing the filler metal did not eliminate liquation cracking. Fifth, the PMZ grains near the weld root were de- formed, suggesting that weld metal solidi- fication induced localized tensile stress/ strain in the liquated PMZ near the weld root. Sixth, a mechanism was proposed to explain the effect of penetration oscilla- tion: the PMZ GBs near the weld root im- mediately behind the oscillating penetra- tion front of the weld pool are both in tension and liquated, and cracking can occur if liquation is significant. Seventh, highly alloyed filler metals that delay weld metal solidification (4145, 4047, and 2319 plus extra Cu) resulted in large liquation cracks backfilled with much eutectic-rich material. Eighth, a mechanism was pro- posed to explain the large cracks: backfill- ing of cracks by an abundant solute-rich interdendritic liquid from the nearby weld metal can cause melting around the cracks and worsen GB liquation and, hence, li- quation cracking, which in turn increases backfilling.

C. HUANG is a Graduate Student at, and S. KOU is a Professor and Chair of, the Department of Ma- terials Science and Engineering, University of Wis- consin-Madison, Madison, Wis.


The partially melted zone (PMZ) is the region immediately outside the fusion zone, where liquation occurs during weld- ing because of heating above the eutectic temperature (or the solidus temperature if the workpiece is completely solutionized before welding) (Ref. 1). Liquation can occur along the grain boundary (GB) as well as in the grain interior. Grain bound- ary liquation can cause cracking in the PMZ. PMZ cracking has also been called edge-of-weld cracking (Ref. 2), base- metal cracking (Ref. 3), hot cracking (Ref. 4), heat-affected zone cracking (Ref. 5), and liquation cracking (Ref. 6). The name liquation cracking is used in the present study.

Aluminum alloys are known to be sus- ceptible to liquation cracking in the PMZ during welding. Liquation cracking in alu- minum welds has been a subject of great interest in welding (Refs. 1-16).

Huang and Kou (Refs. 16-20) recently studied PMZ liquation in the welds of Al- loys 2219, 2024, 6061, and 7075, including the liquation mechanisms, GB solidifica- tion, GB segregation, and PMZ weaken- ing caused by GB segregation. Alloy 2219 is used to investigate liquation cracking in the present study.

Metzger (Ref. 3) reported the effect of the weld metal composition on liquation cracking in aluminum welds. Liquation cracking occurred in full-penetration gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds of Alloy 6061 made with Al-Mg fillers at high dilution ratios but not with AI-Si fillers at any dilu-


Aluminum Alloys Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Liquation Cracking Papillary Penetration Penetration Oscillation

tion ratios. Metzger's study has been con- firmed by subsequent studies on 6061 and similar alloys such as 6063 and 6082 (Refs. 5, 7-12).

Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5) conducted the circular-patch test (Ref. 21) on an alu- minum alloy close to Alloy 6082 in com- position. Full-penetration GTA welds were made with filler metals of Al-5Mg and Al-5Si. As in the study of Metzger (Ref. 3), liquation cracking occurred in the welds made with the Al-5Mg filler at high dilution ratios (about 80%) but not in the welds made with the Al-5Si filler at any dilution ratios.

Katoh et al. (Ref. 7), Kerr et al. (Ref. 8), and Miyazaki et al. (Ref. 9) conducted the Varestraint test (Refs. 22, 23) on 6000- series alloys including Alloy 6061. Partial- penetration GTA and gas metal arc (GMA) welds were made. Longitudinal li- quation cracking occurred with a 5356 filler but not with a 4043 filler.

The present study deals with liquation cracking near the weld root in partial- penetration aluminum welds, focusing on the effect of penetration oscillation and backfilling on liquation cracking. The sim- ple binary Al-Cu Alloy 2219 was selected to help understand liquation cracking more easily. However, similar cracking has also been observed in multicompo- nent aluminum alloys and the results will be reported elsewhere. Liquation cracking in full-penetration aluminum welds will also be reported elsewhere (Ref. 24).

Experimental Procedure

The workpiece was Alloy 2219-T851. "T8" stands for solution heat treating and cold working, followed by artificial aging, and "Tx51" stands for stress relieving by stretching (Ref. 25). The actual composi- tions of the alloys are listed in Table 1 along with those of the filler metals. The workpiece was 20 cm long (8 in.), 10 cm wide (4-in.), and 9.5 mm thick (~ in.). It was welded in the as-received condition.

Bead-on-plate GMAW was carried out perpendicular to the rolling direction of

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W E L D I N G RESEARCH the workpiece. Figure 1 shows that the workpiece was neither clamped down to any fixture nor subjected to any aug- mented strains such as bending. It simply rested on the top of two aluminum sup- ports mounted on a carriage. A semiauto- matic welding gun was mounted on a sta- tionary support and the workpiece moved at a constant speed under the gun.

The welding parameters were 7.41- mm/s (17.5-in./min) travel speed, 30-V arc voltage, 250-A average current, and Ar

shielding. The wire diameter was 1.2 mm (-V~ in.) and the feed rate was 18.6 cm/s (440 in./min). The contact tube to work- piece distance was about 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and the torch was held perpendicular to the workpiece.

The filler metals were 1100, 2319, 4145, 4047, and 2319 plus extra Cu. Filler metal 1100 has essentially no Cu, and the match- ing filler 2319 has as much Cu as Alloy 2219. Filler metal 4145 has about 4 wt-% Cu and 10 wt-% Si, and filler metal 4047

workp.iece . unreszralneo

. . ~ torch ~-~

Fig. 1 - - Welding with workpiece unrestrained to

avoid interfering with interaction between the weld

metal and partially melted zone during welding.

Fig. 2 - - Weld made with .tiger metal 1100: A - - transver~'e macro-

graph; B - - longitudinal macrograph; C - - longitudinal micrograph;

D - - transverse micrograph.

Fig. 3 - - Weld m a d e with filler metal 2319: A - - transverse macro-

graph; B - - longitudinal macrograph; C - - longitudinal micrograph;

D - - transverse micrograph.


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• ":%~M

vavy weld root,~..

W ~ ' ' ' ~ ' : ~ ~ . , , - , . . ~ ; ~ , , ~ l ~ , t ~ J - ' . ' 2 -

Fig. 4 - - Weld m a d e wi th f i l l e r m e t a l 4145." A - - t ransverse m a c r o -

graph; B - - l ong i t ud ina l m a c r o g r a p h ; C - - l ong i t ud ina l m i c r o g r a p h ;

D - - t ransverse micrograph .

Table 1 - - C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n s of the Workpiece and Welding W i r e in W t - %

Fig. 5 - - We ld m a d e wi th f i l ler m e t a l 4047: A - - t ransverse m a c r o -

graph; B - - l o n g i t u d i n a l m a c r o g r a p h ; C - - l o n g i t u d i n a l m i c r o g r a p h ;

D - - t ransverse mtcrograph .

Si Cu Mn Mg Cr Zn Ti Fe Zr Workpiece

2219 0.09 6.49 0.32 0.01 - 0.03 0.06 0.14 0.13 Filler Metals

1100 0.08 0.08 0.01 - - 0.02 - 0.52 - 2319 0.10 6.30 0.30 - - - 0.15 0.15 0.18 4145 9.9 3.9 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.04 - 0.2 - 4047 11.6 0.03 - 0.02 - - - 0.2 -

h a s a b o u t 12 w t - % Si. T h e ex t r a C u was a pa i r o f C u wi res o f 99.999 w t - % pur i ty a n d 1 m m d i a m e t e r t ha t w e r e p o s i t i o n e d in a 2- m m - w i d e by 1 - m m - d e e p r e c t a n g u l a r g r o o v e a l o n g t he c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e w o r k - p i ece su r f ace . T h e C u wi res w e r e ga s t u n g - s t e n a r c w e l d e d ( G T A W ) t h r e e t i m e s to m e l t a n d mix w i th t h e s u r r o u n d i n g b a s e me ta l . T h e c o n d i t i o n fo r G T A W was 14 V, 160 A , D C e l e c t r o d e n e g a t i v e , a n d 4.2- m m / s ( 1 0 - i n . / m i n ) t r ave l s p e e d w i t h A r

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. . . . " ' . - ,.~ ~ ~ " . , ~ , . ~ Z , ~ .

weld,nq d,rect,on i¢'~: ~ - . ~ , ~ . ' £ r . ¢ d ' : ~ ~, -

100#ml-..pMZ _,:". ?,:.z . .•. eutectic,, L..j---:.,

Fig. 6 - - Weld made with filler metal 2219 phts extra Cu: A - - trans-

verse macrograph; B - - longitudinal macrograph; C - - longitudinal micrograph; D - - transverse micrograph.

. . . . . . . ~ , ~ . ~ ~ , ~ k . ~ " . . . .

welo~ng d~recuon l!~;eWeld.~.t-~2j~ ~ ~ , ~


Fig. 7 - - Smooth weld made with filler metal 2319 without papifla~y penetration and liquation cracking: A - - transverse macrograph; B

- - longitudinal macrograph; C - - longitudinal micrograph; D - - transverse micrograph.

shielding. The resultant weld bead was about 6 mm wide at the top and 4 mm deep, which was well within the GMA weld made subsequently with filler metal 2319 in order to include all the extra Cu into the GMA weld.

A workpiece 20 cm long (8 in.), 10 cm wide (4 in.), and 7.9 mm thick (~, in.) was also welded. The welding parameters were 7.20-mm/s (17-in./min) travel speed, 26.5-V arc voltage, 195-A average current,

and Ar shielding. The welding wire was a 1.2-mm-diameter wire of Alloy 2319, and the wire feed rate was 13.5 cm/s (320 in./min). The contact tube to workpiece distance was 25.4 mm (1 in.), and the torch pointed forward at a 15-deg angle from the vertical line instead of vertically down.

The resultant welds were cut, polished, and etched with a solution of 0.5 vol-% HF in water for microstructural examination by optical microscopy• Transverse cross

sections of the welds were taken with a digital camera•

The concentration of any element, E, in the weld metal was calculated as fol- lows:

%E in weld metal = (%E in base metal) x lab~ (A h + ~If)]

+ (%E in filler metal) x [Af / (.4 h + Af)] (1)

where A b and A f are the areas in the weld


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WELDING RESEARCH much weld metal solidifying, contracting fusion and pulling PMZ boundary

• ",,,

- ' t ed" ""~ - ~ g ",~ n-hq ua / " \ direction B \ - G B s / / " \ \

area of both GB liquation liquation and tensile stress/strain cracking

little weld me al solidifying

= ' at/e .e. i -l iqu d - G B s /

"~ L / ro ling direction / \

area of GB liquation and b~ttom of little tensile stress/strain workpiece

Fig. 8 - - Localized stress~strain in the partially melted zone (PMZ) in the transverse cross section o f a solidifying weld pool traveling perpendicular to the rolling direction. A - - Papillary penetration; B - - smooth weld bottom.

o~ 700

60o 580 500

E ~- 400,

800 ...................................................... 4.0 (2219/1100)

=(6.5 (221912319) L r tS4~--8.4 (2219/2319+Cu) ~ 33.2

~5 c t + 0 - ~ L at T E = 5 4 8 ° C

.65 0(AI2Cu)"= I I I I 0 t + e I I

300 .l.J.J ............................................ 0 10 20 30 40 50 AI Weight Percent Copper

Fig. 9 - -Aluminum-r ich side o f AI-Cu phase di- agram (Ref. 38).

transverse cross section that represent contributions from the base metal and filler metal, respectively. The ratioA b / (A b + A f ) is the dilution ratio. AreasA b andAf were determined from the transverse macrograph by using commercial com- puter software.

Results and Discussion

Characteristics of Weld Penetration

Figures 2 through 6 show the results of the bead-on-plate welds made in the 9.5- mm (k-in.) workpiece with various filler metals. The transverse macrographs of the welds in Figs. 2A through 6A show a pap- illary- (nipple-) type penetration. Some of the papillary penetrations were shallower than others. The depth appeared to vary to some extent with the filler metal, but no apparent pat terns of variations were found.

The longitudinal macrographs of the same welds in Figs. 2B through 6B show that the weld root was wavy along the weld instead of smooth. This surprising result

5.5 - - - -



4 . 0 -

0~ 3.5 -

I i I • I

12219/I II 4047 i

"1 ]-----

e 2219/ 4145 -~

3 . 0 - ~ I * S ~ A I * S i * - q q I CuAL

I L l t

2.0 ~ ~

1.5 ~

0 "~ " 22el

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cu Content, wt %

Fig. 10 - - AI-Cu-Si solidus temperature map (Ref. 39). 2219/4145 and 2219/4047 denote welds o f Alloy 2219 made with filler metals 4145 and 4047, respectively.

indicates that papillary penetrat ion was not steady but oscil lated up and down along the weld.

In GMAW, spray transfer is the most commonly used mode of metal transfer from the welding wire to the weld pool. In GMAW of aluminum alloys with Ar shielding, which is the most widely used process for welding aluminum alloys, the arc energy is concentrated along the core of the arc because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of Ar. Consequently, the Ar arc plasma has a very high-energy core and an outer mantle of lesser thermal energy. This helps to produce a stable, axial transfer of metal droplets through an

Ar arc plasma. The resultant weld trans- verse cross section is often characterized by a papillary-type penetra t ion pat tern (Ref. 26).

While the papillary-type penetrat ion pattern in GMAW of aluminum alloys is well-known, the oscillation of a papillary penetration along the weld is not (at least not to the best knowledge of the authors).

As shown in Figs. 2B through 6B, the penetra t ion depth of the G M A welds made with Ar shielding oscillated rather than remaining constant. The causes for penetration oscillation can be fluctuations in, for instance, the welding current, weld- ing wire melt rate, or droplet transfer. With the superheat and momentum of the filler metal droplets in spray transfer, these fluctuations can cause thermal and, hence, melting fluctuations at the pool bottom when the droplets penetrate the weld pool and impinge on the pool bot- tom. Fluctuations in the arc pressure can cause pool surface oscillation (Refs. 27-32), which may also affect heat trans- fer to the pool bottom.

Penetration Oscillation and Liquation Cracking

The longitudinal micrographs of the welds in Figs. 2C through 6C show liqua- tion cracking in the PMZ near the weld root. The cracks were intergranular, rang- ing from open (Fig. 2C) to backfilled (Figs. 4C-6C). The transverse micro- graphs of the welds in Figs. 2D through 6D show similar characteristics of liquation cracking. It is evident from Fig. 2B and C through Fig. 6B and C that l iquation cracking occurred most often in the area between waves of the wavy weld root.

Of all the filler metals used for welding Alloy 2219 in the present study, 2319 re- sulted in the least liquation cracking. It is known that many welds of Alloy 2219 fab- ricated with filler metal 2319 have been found crack-free. In the aerospace indus- try, such welds have been made by GTAW, which does not cause penetration oscilla- tion. The authors have made such welds by full-penetration GMAW in circular-patch testing, and, of course, no penetration os- cillation can occur in ful l-penetrat ion welds. They have also made such welds by partial-penetration GMAW in which pen- etration oscillation was absent. What Fig. 3 shows clearly is that small l iquation cracks can appear in partial-penetration GMAW of 2219 with 2319 and Ar if PMZ liquation is significant and penetration os- cillation is clear (that is, the weld root shows clear waves along the welding di- rection).

The presence of l iquation cracking in the fu l l -penetra t ion GTA welds of Metzger (Ref. 3) and Gittos and Scott

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(Ref. 5), where neither the papillary pen- etration nor penetrat ion oscillation ex- ists, does not necessarily imply that the weld penetration type is not a dominant factor in liquation cracking. The present study by no means suggests l iquation cracking cannot occur in aluminum welds unless the papillary penetration or pene- tration oscillation exists. As mentioned previously, liquation cracking has been observed in ful l-penetrat ion aluminum welds by the authors and it will be re- ported elsewhere (Ref. 24).

Steady Penetration and Absence of Liquation Cracking

Figure 7 shows a bead-on-plate weld made in the 7.9-mm (~6-in.) workpiece with filler metal 2319. As shown in the trans- verse macrograph in Fig. 7A, the bottom of the weld was smooth and without any pap- illary penetration. The use of the lower welding current (wire feed rate), the longer distance between the contact tube and the workpiece, and the 15-deg torch angle made the weld bottom smooth but reduced the penetration depth by about 40%.

As shown in the longitudinal macro- graph in Fig. 7B, the weld root was smooth and without clear penetration oscillation along the weld. Neither the longitudinal micrograph of the weld in Fig. 7C nor the transverse micrograph in Fig. 7D shows any evidence of liquation cracking in the PMZ.

Another 2219 weld was made in the 9.5- mm-thick (X-in.) workpiece by gas-tung- sten arc welding with Ar and filler metal 1100. The weld had a penetration depth about the same as that in the 2219 weld shown in Fig. 2. However, the weld was smooth - - without a papillary penetration or a wavy weld root. No liquation cracking was observed. This will be discussed further elsewhere because of space limitations.

In summary, l iquation cracking oc- curred in welds with a wavy weld root but did not occur in welds with a smooth weld root, and the effect of weld penetration os- cillation on liquation cracking was thus demonstrated.

Deformation, Cracking, and Localized Stress/Strain in PMZ

According to Borland (Ref. 33), there are essentially three hot cracking theories - - the shrinkage-brittleness theory, the strain theory, and the generalized theory that includes the relevant ideas from the first two theories. According to the gener- alized theory, cracking can take place in a material in which continuous liquid films separate grains or in which some solid- solid bridges exist between grains (Ref. 33). When the localized tensile stress/strain in the material exceeds its re- sistance to cracking, hot cracking occurs.

2, Warm jet impings suddenly, \ causing nearby GBs to liquate.

weld pool . " .: :: :

:pu,T,;g :.:


/ I I / area of both tensile 3. GBs already in tension stress/strain and crack if liquated significantly GB liquation by warm jet

Fig. 11 - - Mechanism o f fiquation cracking near

weld root induced by penetration oscillation and grain-boundary liquation. A - - Overview; B - -

enlarged view (with cracks bacl~filled).

weld pool

M u c h less weld meta l is so l id i fy ing ~ , j a n d cont ract ing. \ ~ l ~ ' 1 ~

/ \ / a r e a of GB l iquat ion G B s hard ly in tens ion a re

m u c h less l ikely to crack,

Fig. 12 - - Liquation cracking is much less likely

to occur without penetration oscillation. A - -

Overview; B - - enlarged view.

Since the workpiece was not bent dur- ing welding to cause cracking as in Varestaint testing, the PMZ microstruc- ture and cracks were not changed by any external forces and thus can provide qual- itative information about the localized stress/strain in the PMZ that caused li- quation cracking. The use of a freestand- ing workpiece does not eliminate the self- induced stress/strain during welding. However, liquation cracking occurs in an area in the PMZ near to the weld root, about 500 lam based on Figs. 2 through 6. It is likely that in the PMZ n e a r t o the we ld

root, the contraction of the solidifying weld metal dominates the tensile stress/strain during welding. This is be- cause the solidification shrinkage and thermal contraction of aluminum alloys are both high and because no external stress/strain was applied during welding. The solidification shrinkage of aluminum is as high as 6.6% (Ref. 34). The thermal expansion coefficient of aluminum is roughly twice that of iron base alloys.

Before preceding any further, it should be pointed out that analysis of the local- ized stress/strain in the PMZ of a weld with penetration oscillation is beyond the scope of the present study. As already shown, liquation cracking occurred in welds with clear penetrat ion oscillation but did not occur in smooth welds. The au- thors are unaware of any liquation crack-

ing theories that consider the localized stress/strain in welds with penetration os- cillation. They are also unaware of any methods for calculating or measuring the localized stress/strain in welds with pene- tration oscillation. The thermomechanical propert ies of semisolids such as the li- quated PMZ and the solidifying weld metal are unavailable in the first place. Figures 2 through 6 show that liquation cracking occurred most often in the tiny area between waves along the wavy weld root, which can be far too small, too hot, and inaccessible for stress/strain measure- ments. Therefore, liquation cracking will be discussed based on the localized stress/strain in the PMZ near the weld root that was deduced from the deformed grains and cracks. In the study of Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5), the phrase "tensile strains arising from weld metal solidifica- tion" was used to qualitatively describe the localized stress/strain in the PMZ.

Figures 3D through 6D showed that the PMZ grains near the weld root were de- formed; that is, pulled upward toward the tip of the papillary penetration. The de- formed grains and the liquation cracks to- gether suggest that weld metal solidification in the papillary penetration induced an up- ward tensile stress/strain in the PMZ near the tip of weld-pool penetration during welding and caused liquation cracking.

The localized tensile stress/strain in-

W E L D I N G J O U R N A L i l : ~ l f , . ~1

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, W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H . :

~ denies :~=

- - - I grain _ ~ . . . ~ ~

c r a c k f f ~ fusi°n line ~-

O 7001" 2219 L (C) O I ~ cd/cb > ca/cb

',a T_~---i;~. ~'~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :~.:.,.~_

~" alot/; T==548°C s00F/, , : . ,

0 10 20 30 AI Weight Percent Cu

Fig. 13 - - Backfilling o f liquation cracks. A - -

No backfilling; B - - backfilling and backfilling- induced melting; C - - backfilling-induced in- crease in local average composition and increase in liquid fraction (melting) around cracks,

duced in the PMZ near the weld root in- creases with increasing extent of weld metal solidification. That is, the more solid that forms in the weld metal, the greater the lo- calized tensile stress/strain is induced in the PMZ near the weld root by weld metal con- traction. Meanwhile, the material resis- tance of the PMZ to cracking decreases with increasing extent of GB liquation. Thus, in the PMZ near the weld root the lo- calized tensile stress/strain competes with the material resistance to cracking. If, near the weld root, much weld metal is already solidifying while the PMZ is still liquated

I ° n g i t u d i n a grain boundaries


s, je~S e. _

grain boundaries

Fig. 14 - -Access of grain boundaries in partially melted zone (PMZ) to weM metal. A - - Longi- tudinal cross section; n - - transverse cross sec- tion.

significantly, it is likely that the localized tensile stress/strain exceeds the material re- sistance to cracking and liquation cracking occurs. On the other hand, if little weld metal is solidifying while the PMZ is still li- quated significantly, liquation cracking is unlikely to occur.

Figure 8 shows the transverse cross sec- tion of a solidifying weld pool traveling per- pendicular to the rolling direction and the localized stress/strain in the PMZ near the weld root. As shown in Fig. 8A, the solidify- ing weld metal is significantly thicker inside the papillary penetration than elsewhere. (It is thicker because the weld metal in the papillary penetration, surrounded by a cooler PMZ on all sides as well as at the bot- tom, solidified rapidly. This is evident be- cause the dendrite arm spacing was much finer inside the papillary penetration than near the bulk weld, but this will be shown elsewhere due to space limitations.) Be- cause the solidifying weld metal is relatively thick inside the papillary penetration, it is already developing strength and contract- ing. The PMZ, however, does not contract as much as the weld metal does because so- lidification shrinkage is much less in the PMZ, in view of the much smaller volume of the GB liquid than the weld pool. Con-

sequently, tensile stress/strain is induced in the PMZ near the weld root. This tensile stress/strain can be harmful because it is concentrated near the tip and normal to li- quated GBs and thus can easily open them up.

On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 8B, the solidifying weld metal near the bottom of a smooth weld pool is much thinner, and thus it induces little tensile stress/strain in the PMZ nearby. This smooth weld without a papillary penetra- tion is similar to that shown in Fig. 7. As shown in Figs. 7C and D, there was no li- quation cracking in the weld. Very small waves and slightly deformed grains were observed occasionally along the weld, but no cracks were found.

As can be seen from Fig. 8A, liquation cracking is more likely to occur at the bot- tom of the fusion boundary than at the top. This was confirmed by the absence of liquation cracking at the top (micrographs not shown because of space limitations). Here, the direction of the tensile stress/strain is nearly parallel to the GBs, and the solidifying weld metal is thin. Fur- thermore, there is less liquation because of the steeper temperature gradients (that is, narrower PMZ) at the top (Refs. 1, 19).

Before leaving this section, it is worth discussing the weld made with filler metal 2319 plus extra Cu (Fig. 6) a little further. Making a solute-rich preweld before weld- ing is an established technique for achieving the desired weld metal composition (Refs. 35-37). The severe liquation cracking (Fig. 6D) was not likely to be caused by the early formation of high-temperature, Cu-ricb in- termetallic compounds because the mi- crostructure showed no evidence of such compounds in the weld metal. The liquation cracking was not likely to be caused by the residual stresses induced by the additional GTA passes, either. This is because the welds made with filler metals 4145 (Fig. 4D) and 4047 (Fig. 5D) also showed much li- quation cracking - - without making a solute-rich preweld before GMAW.

Solidus Temperatures and Liquation Cracking

According to Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5), the solidus temperature of the weld metal vs. that of the base metal has a strong ef- fect on liquation cracking. Figure 9 shows the binary A1-Cu phase diagram (Ref. 38), which can be used to determine the solidus temperature of the weld metal in welds made with filler metals 1100, 2319, and 2319 with extra Cu. Likewise, Fig. 10 shows the solidus temperatures of AI-Cu- Si ternary alloys (Ref. 39), which can be used for the welds made with filler metals 4145 and 4047. The solid lines represent experimental data and the broken lines

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are extrapolated from the solid lines. Consider first the welds made in Alloy

2219 (Al-6.49Cu) with filler metal 1100 (Al- 0.08Cu), 2319 (Al-6.30Cu), or 2319 with extra Cu. With 1100, the weld metal com- position was AI-4.0Cu (dilution ratio 60.6%). From Fig. 9, the solidus tempera- ture of the weld metal is 580°C. Similarly, with 2319 the weld metal composition was Al-6.4Cu (dilution ratio 60.6%). Since the eutectic temperature 548°C is the lowest possible temperature for an equilibrium liq- uid phase to exist in this weld metal, it is taken as its solidus temperature for the pur- pose of discussion. With 2319 plus extra Cu, the weld metal composition was A1-8.4Cu (dilution ratio 56.8%). The solidus temper- ature of the weld metal is again taken as the eutectic temperature 548°C.

Consider now the welds made in Alloy 2219 (A1-6.49Cu-0.09Si) with filler metals 4145 (AI-3.9Cu-9.9Si) and 4047 (Al-11.6Si- 0.03Cu). With filler metal 4145, the weld metal composition was Al-5.38Cu-4.31Si (dilution ratio 57.0%). As shown in Fig. 10, the solidus temperature of the weld metal was 525°C. Similarly, with filler metal 4047, the weld metal composition was AI-3.67Cu- 5.11Si (dilution ratio 56.4%) and the solidus temperature was 534°C.

In order to double-check the accuracy of the extrapolated solidus temperatures in Fig. 10, the computer program P a n d a t

(Ref. 40) was used. The program calcu- lates phase diagrams and solidification paths based on thermodynamic models and data. The calculated solidus tempera- tures based on equilibrium solidification was 524°C for the weld made with filler metal 4145 and 534°C for the weld made with filler metal 4047, which confirmed the solidus temperatures in Fig. 10.

Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5) stated, "The proposed mechanism of H A Z cracking is that, during welding, grain boundary melt- ing occurs in the HAZ and with certain base metal and weld metal compositions, it is possible for the base metal solidus to be below the weld metal solidus. Thus, when tensile strains arising from weld metal solidification are imposed on the HAZ, cracking occurs at such bound- aries." In the weld made with filler metal 1100 in the present study, liquation crack- ing occurred and the weld metal did have a higher solidus temperature (580°C) than the base metal (548°C). In the welds made with filler metals 2319 and 2319 plus extra Cu, however, liquation cracking occurred but the weld metal did not have a higher solidus temperature than the base metal. In the welds made with filler metal 4145 and 4047, l iquation cracking also oc- curred, but the weld metal did not have a higher solidus temperature than the base metal, either.

In fact, Miyazaki et al. (Ref. 9) have

also stated: "When the A6061 alloy was actually GMA welded using 5356 filler metal, longitudinal cracking was observed, but, contrary to Gittos et al., it was not observed that the solidus tempera- ture of the weld metal be- came higher than that of the base metal ." It was suggested that constitu- tional liquation induced by low-temperature eutec- tic reactions in the base metal could have made the effective solidus tem- peratures of the base met- als lower than those of the weld metal. While this is likely to be true for Alloy 6061, liquation occurs in Alloy 2219 at the eutectic temperature 548°C and is thus not lower than that of the weld metal.

It is worth pointing out that the solidus tempera- ture is relevant for equilib- rium solidification. However, equilibrium so- lidification is not likely to occur in welding in view of the high cooling rates dur- ing welding, and the termi- nal solidification occurs through eutectic reactions at temperatures well below the solidus temperature. The solidus temperatures of the weld metal and the base metal are discussed in this section only for the purpose of comparing the experimental results in the present study with the the- ory of Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5).

Effect of Penetration Oscillation on Liquation Cracking

A liquation-cracking mechanism is proposed in Fig. 11 to help explain the effect of penetration oscil- lation on liquation cracking. The empha- sis is to explain the effect of penetration oscillation on liquation cracking observed in the present s t u d y - - not to indicate that the conventional liquation cracking is gen- erally incorrect.

As shown in Fig. 11A, in GMAW with spray transfer, weld-pool penetration can oscillate and result in a wavy weld root along the weld. A depression is formed at

Fig. 15 - - Weld in a butt jo in t made with filler metal 4145." A - - trans-

verse macrograph; B - - longitudinal macrograph; C - - longitudinal

micrograph; D - - transverse micrograph.

the pool bottom when the jet carrying the superheat of the liquid droplets impinges on the pool bottom. The area inside the rectangle is enlarged in Fig. l lB . As shown, much weld metal has already been solidifying, developing strength, contract- ing, and pulling the PMZ underneath. As such, significant tensile stress/strain is in- duced in the PMZ by weld metal solidifi- cation. When the warm jet impinges sud-


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. . . . . . . . . . . W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H

denly, the nearby GBs liquate upon heat- ing by the jet. The PMZ GBs near the weld root immediately behind the oscillating weld-pool penetration front, as indicated in the figure, are subjected to both GB li- quation and tensile stress/strain. If liqua- tion is significant, the GBs can be severely weakened. Consequently, the localized tensile stress/strain can exceed the mater- ial resistance to cracking, and liquation cracking can occur. The incipient liqua- tion cracks are likely to be small but they can gradually grow in size as weld metal solidification continues during welding. Figure 8A, in fact, is a transverse cross sec- tion showing the localized stress/strain in the PMZ near the weld root immediately behind the weld-pool penetration front.

Significant GB liquation is required for liquation cracking to occur even in the presence of clear penetration oscillation. For an aluminum alloy that can liquate sig- nificantly during welding, such as Alloy 2219, liquation cracking can occur easily in a weld with clear penetration oscillation. However, for an alloy that liquates much less significantly, liquation cracking may not occur even with clear penetration os- cillation. This is because GBs are still well bridged together because of the relatively light GB liquation; that is, the PMZ resis- tance to cracking exceeds the localized tensile stress/strain. For instance, Alloy 6061 welded under the same condition as Alloy 2219 showed clear penetration os- cillation. However, it neither liquated sig- nificantly nor exhibited liquation cracking. The results of Alloy 6061 will be reported elsewhere because of space limitations.

The absence of liquation cracking in a weld with a smooth weld root (Fig. 7) can be explained with the help of Fig. 12A, which shows a steady weld pool and the smooth weld root behind it. There is neither pene- tration oscillation nor a wavy weld root. The area inside the rectangle is enlarged in Fig. 12B. As compared to the case in Fig. l iB, there is much less weld metal solidification to induce tensile stress/strain in the PMZ and cause it to exceed the PMZ resistance to cracking. Farther down the weld, weld metal solidification increases but PMZ so- lidification also increases, and the PMZ ten- sile stress/strain still may not exceed the PMZ resistance to cracking.

As ment ioned previously, l iquation cracking most often occurred in the PMZ in the area between neighboring waves of the wavy weld root - - Figs. 2B and C through Figs. 6B and C. During welding, this area corresponds to that near the weld root immediately behind the oscillating penetration front of the weld pool, which is essentially the area of both GB liquation and tensile stress/strain shown in Fig. 1 lB. Since the weld-pool penetration front sub- sequently solidifies as the next wave in the wavy weld root, this area ends up being be-

tween two neighboring waves. This ex- plains why liquation cracking most often occurs in the area between neighboring waves of the wavy weld root.

In view of Fig. 11 and the rapid solidifi- cation of the weld metal near the weld root, it is likely there can still be enough weld metal solidifying before the warm jet im- pinges even when weld metal solidification is delayed by using a highly-alloyed filled metal. Thus, near the weld root the local- ized stress/strain induced in the PMZ by weld metal solidification, though reduced, can still exceed the PMZ resistance to cracking. This is consistent with the liqua- tion cracking in the welds made with filler metal 4145, 4047, or 2319 plus Cu - - Figs. 4-6. In fact, not only cracking occurred; the cracks were large and backfilled with much eutectic-rich material. This will be ex- plained subsequently in the section below, headed "Backfilling-Induced Melting and Its Effect on Liquation Cracking."

Backfilling of Cracks

When liquation cracks are formed, a vacuum is created within them. A liquid connected to the cracks may or may not be sucked into them, depending on factors such as the quantity, viscosity, surface ten- sion, and freezing temperature range of the liquid. Consequently, the cracks may remain open, as shown in Fig. 13A, or be backfilled as shown in Fig. 13B (and Fig. l i b as well).

If liquation cracks are backfilled, the liquid sucked into the cracks is most likely the solute-rich or even eutectic interden- dritic liquid in the solidifying weld metal that is connected to the cracks rather than the liquid in the weld pool. This is because the material in the backfilled cracks was rich in eutectic - - Figs. 3-6.

The higher the fraction of the solute- rich or eutectic interdendritic liquid in the solidifying weld metal at fusion boundary, the more backfilling can occur. Consider the welds made with filler metals 1100, 2319, and 2319 plus extra Cu. From the Al- Cu phase diagram shown in Fig. 9, the equilibrium part i t ion ratio k = 5.65 %/33.2% = 0.17 and the eutectic com- position CE = 33.2% Cu. For ease of dis- cussion, the fraction of the liquid eutectic fE will be used here as an indication of the amount of a solute-rich as well as a eutec- tic interdendritic liquid in the weld metal at the fusion line. The fraction of the liq- uid eutecticfE can be calculated using the following form of the Scheil equation as an approximation (Ref. 1).



According to Equation 2, for the weld metal of the weld made with filler metal 1100, C O = 4.0% Cu andfE = 0.08. For that with filler metal 2319, C O = 6.4% Cu andfE = 0.14, and for that with 2319 plus Cu, C O

= 8.4% Cu andre = 0.19. This suggests that backfilling should increase as the filler metal is changed from 1100 to 2319, and 2319 plus Cu. Figures 2, 3, and 6 do show this trend. However, the cracks were much larger and were backfilled with much more eutectic-rich material in the case of 2319 plus Cu than in the case of 2319. These dif- ferences, which cannot be explained based on the fraction of eutectic alone, will be ex- plained later in the next section.

Savage and Dickinson (Ref. 35) sug- gested that the viscosity of the weld metal may also affect backfilling. Si decreases the viscosity of aluminum (Ref. 41) and it has been used to improve the fluidity of molten aluminum in metal casting. Since filler metal 4047 contained about 12% Si, it may increase the Si content of the inter- dendritic eutectic in the solidifying weld metal and thus help backfilling. Cu, on the other hand, increases the viscosity of alu- minum (Ref. 41). This implies that filler metal 1100 should help backfilling while 2319 plus Cu should discourage it. How- ever, liquation cracks were open with filler metal 1100 but backfilled with 2319 plus Cu. Therefore, the effect of Cu on viscos- ity seemed minor. Neither Si nor Cu has a significant effect on the surface tension of aluminum (Ref. 41).

Although some GBs may appear to be separated from the weld metal, they can, in fact, be connected to the solidifying weld metal during welding to allow back- filling. Figure 14A shows how GBs in a longitudinal cross section (Figs. 3C-6C) can have access to the weld metal. This makes sense only if the longitudinal cross section is not along the weld central plane. However, it is unlikely that a weld was cut precisely along the weld central plane. Furthermore, even if this were true, the penetration tip of the weld pool still did not necessarily move along the weld cen- tral plane. Rather, it could oscillate left and right as well as up and down as it trav- eled along the welding direction, in view of the unsteady nature of filler metal transfer during welding.

Similarly, Fig. 14B shows how GBs in a transverse cross section (Figs. 3D-6D) can have access to the weld metal. It makes sense only if the transverse cross section is not cut precisely at the bottom of a wave of the wavy weld root, but it is not very likely that this actually happened.

Backfilling-Induced Melting and Its Effect on Liquation Cracking

As mentioned previously, l iquation cracks were much larger and backfilled

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WELDING RESEARCH with much more eutectic-rich material when using highly alloyed filler metals 4145, 4047, and 2319 plus Cu - - Figs. 4-6. This phenomenon will be explained with the help of the macrosegregation theory in metal casting. In metal casting, the flow of the solute-rich interdendritic liquid in the mushy zone (solid + liquid) can change the local average composition and liquid fraction in the mushy zone and cause eu- tectic-rich channels (freckles) to form in the ingots (Ref. 34).

Consider the backfilling illustrated in Fig. 13B. Point a is in the PMZ near the fusion boundary, where the temperature is Ta, and point b is in the solidifying weld metal nearby. Because of the high thermal conductivity of aluminum, the tempera- ture at point b should be nearly identical to T a. The white arrow from point b to point a indicates backfilling in the same direction. For simplicity, the composition fluctuation in the workpiece is neglected. Also, as in the derivation of the Scheil equation, the interdendritic liquid is as- sumed to be in equilibrium with the solid and to be locally hom*ogeneous. In the AI- Cu phase diagram shown in Fig. 13C, point a indicates the local average compo- sition of the area surrounding point a in Fig. 13B (indicated by the circle); that is, the workpiece composition (6.49% Cu). Likewise, point b in Fig. 13C indicates the composition of the interdendritic liquid at point b in Fig. 13B. As shown, the solute content at point h is much higher than the local average solute content at point a.

Consider first the hypothetical case in which the solute content of the interden- dritic liquid at point b is identical to that of the local average solute content at point a. The local average liquid fraction at point a may increase momentarily when the inter- dendritic liquid at point b backfills the crack at point a but will quickly go back to its ini- tial value before backfilling because there is only one local average liquid fraction at point a at a given temperature and compo- sition. This can be seen from the following Scheil equation (Ref. 1):


: (.(-m,.)Co) ~-k f'. I T . - T


wherefL is the liquid fraction, mL (<0) the slope of the liquidus line in the phase dia- gram, C O the solute content, T m the melt- ing point of pure aluminum, T tempera- ture, and k the equilibrium partition ratio. According to Equation 3, at a given T and Co, there is only one fl:

However, as shown in Fig. 13C, the solute content of the interdendritic liquid at point b is much higher than the local av- erage solute content at point a. Therefore,

when the solute-rich interdendritic liquid flows from point b to point a, the local av- erage solute content at point a can in- crease significantly, as represented by the arrow pointing from point a to point d in Fig. 13C. Using the simple lever-arm rule and the phase diagram as a rough indica- tion, it can be seen that the fraction of liq- uid increases from ca/cb before backfilling to cd/cb after. Likewise, according to Equation 3, at a given temperature T, the local average liquid fraction fL increases with increasing local average solute con- tent C o. As such, when the solute-rich in- terdendritic liquid flows from point h to point a, the local average liquid fraction at point a can increase significantly.

Therefore, when the solute-rich inter- dendritic liquid backfills a liquation crack, it can melt the material along the crack and cause more GB liquation. Since the GBs around the crack are in tension (Fig. l lB) , further GB liquation causes further liquation cracking. Further liquation cracking, in turn, causes further backfill- ing - - as long as there is sufficient solute- rich interdendri t ic liquid at the fusion boundary available for backfilling. This cycle can continue until the local fusion boundary cools down to the eutectic tem- perature and solidifies completely. This is especially true for welds made with a highly alloyed filler metal such as 2319 plus Cu (and 4145 and 4047), in which there is abundant solute-rich interden- dritic liquid available at the fusion bound- ary for backfilling. This may explain the formation of large liquation cracks and their backfilling with much eutectic-rich material in Fig. 6 (and Figs. 4 and 5).

Weld in a Butt Joint with Papillary Penetration

In Fig. 8 the grains are continuous and pointing in the rolling direction, but in the case of a butt joint, the grains are discon- tinuous at the joint. It is thus interesting to see the effect of this discontinuity.

Figure 15 shows a weld in a butt joint made in the 9.5-mm (~-in.) workpiece with filler metal 4145. As shown by the transverse macrograph of the weld in Fig. 15A, the weld had a papillary penetration similar to those in Figs. 2A through 6A. As shown by the longitudinal macrograph in Fig. 15B, the weld had a wavy weld root similar to those in Figs. 2B through 6B.

The longitudinal micrograph in Fig. 15C shows that the weld had liquation cracks. The cracks were intergranular and mostly backfilled, similar to those in Fig. 4C. The transverse micrograph in Fig. 15D shows the weld bottom near the butt joint, the fusion boundary being higher on the left and lower on the right. Some weld metal leaked into the gap at the joint dur- ing welding. Liquation cracking was evi-

dent in the PMZ near the joint. The grains in the PMZ near the weld root were de- formed, similar to those shown in Fig. 4D. Therefore, the characteristics of papillary penetrat ion and liquation cracking in a weld in a butt joint are similar to those in a bead-on-plate weld. For a weld in a butt joint with a much larger joint gap, how- ever, liquation cracking at the weld root may not occur.

The results in the present study also have practical implications for dual-pass welding in butt joints. In such welding the first pass is made from one side of the workpiece and the second pass from the opposite side. First, if the penetration tips from the two sides fail to overlap with each other, numerous liquation cracks can be present along the weld. Second, with suf- ficient overlapping between the two passes, the weld root of the second pass can still be wavy and thus can cause liqua- tion cracking inside the first pass if GB li- quation is significant near the weld root.

C o n c l u s i o n s

In view of the susceptibility of alu- minum alloys to liquation cracking and the wide use of Ar-shielded GMAW for alu- minum welding, liquation cracking was studied in partial-penetration aluminum welds made using GMAW with Ar shield- ing. Alloy 2219, which is a simple binary AI-Cu alloy easy to understand, was welded with filler metals of various Cu and Si contents, including 1100, 2319, 4145, 4047, and 2319 plus extra Cu. Liquation cracking near the weld root was examined in the transverse and longitudinal macro- graphs and micrographs of the resultant welds. The conclusions are as follows:

• The papillary-type penetration com- mon in GMAW tends to oscillate up and down during welding. The penetration os- cillation results in a wavy weld root along the weld.

• The combination of clear penetra- tion oscillation and significant GB liqua- tion promotes liquation cracking. Liqua- tion cracking near the weld root has a much greater tendency to occur in welds with penetration oscillation than in welds without it.

• In welds with penetration oscillation, liquation cracking occurs most often in the PMZ between neighboring waves of the wavy weld root.

• In welds with penetration oscillation, adjusting the weld metal composition with the filler metal can be ineffective in elimi- nating liquation cracking, though it has been shown effective in full-penetration aluminum welds and perhaps in partial- penetration aluminum welds without pen- etration oscillation as well.

• In welds with papillary penetration, the deformation of the PMZ grains near


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W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H . . . . . . . . . . the weld root suggests that weld metal so- lidification induces tensile stress/strain in the P M Z near the weld root. The high so- l idification shrinkage and thermal con- traction of aluminum alloys cause the so- lidifying weld metal to contract and pull the PMZ.

• Susceptibility to l iquation cracking can vary significantly within the PMZ. Li- quation cracking can be much more sig- nificant near the weld root than at the weld top, where there are less liquation and tensile stress/strain.

• In welds with penetration oscillation, liquation cracking can still occur even when the weld-metal solidus temperature is not higher than the base-metal solidus temper- ature, contrary to the full-penetration welds in the study of Gittos and Scott (Ref. 5).

• A liquation-cracking mechanism has been p roposed to explain the effect of penetrat ion oscillation on liquation crack- ing: the P M Z GBs near the weld root im- mediately behind the oscillating penetra- tion front of the weld pool are subjected to both GB l iquat ion and tensi le stress/strain, and l iquation cracking can occur if l iquation is significant enough to weaken the GBs severely.

• When attempting to use highly alloyed filler metals to delay weld metal solidifica- tion and thus eliminate liquation cracking, large liquation cracks can form and be back- filled with much eutectic-rich material if penetration oscillation is present.

• A backfilling-induced melting mech- anism has been proposed to explain the large backfilled cracks. Backfilling of li- quation cracks by an abundant solute-rich interdendrit ic liquid from the nearby so- lidifying weld meta l can cause mel t ing along the cracks to worsen GB liquation and, hence, l iquation cracking, which in turn increases backfilling.


This work was supported by the Na- t ional Science Foundat ion under Gran t No. DMR-0098776. The authors thank Bruce Albrecht and Todd Holverson of Miller Electric Manufacturing Company, Appleton, Wis., for donating the welding equipment used in the present study.


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-&#039; tWS-Weldi - [PDF Document] (2024)


How long does it take to finish Tulsa welding school? ›

In as little as seven months, you'll be trained in structural welding, fluxcore welding and pipe welding. You'll also be prepared to excel in job interviews and weld tests for various welding certifications.

Do I need a GED for Tulsa Welding School? ›

Applicants shall: be a high school graduate with a standard or higher-level diploma; or possess a General Equivalency Diploma (GED) or high school equivalency; or proof of eligible home school program.

What is the welding process document? ›

A Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) is a formal document describing welding procedures. It is an internal document used by welding companies to instruct welders (or welding operators) on how to achieve quality production welds that meet all relevant code requirements.

What is the mission statement of Tulsa Welding School? ›

Mission Statement

The mission of Tulsa Welding School is to assist learners in the development of the skills and knowledge necessary for employment and professional growth.

Is Tulsa welding worth it? ›

The school's reputation, experienced instructors, and state-of-the-art facilities make it an excellent choice for anyone looking to build a career in the welding industry. This is a nice school to learn the basics of welding. You will get a lot of hood time to hone your skills.

What is the tuition at Tulsa Welding School? ›

Electrical ApplicationsProfessional Welder
Tuition:$ 17,400$ 18,700
Per Semester Credit Hour Tuition:$ 621$ 748
Military Pricing Tuition:*$ 15,660$ 16,830
Per Semester Credit Hour Military Pricing Tuition:*$ 559$ 673
7 more rows

What are the 7 basic types of welding pdf? ›

  • Arc welding 4) Thermit Welding. Carbon arc. Metal arc 5) Solid State Welding. Metal inert gas Friction. Tungsten inert gas Ultrasonic. Plasma arc Diffusion. Submerged arc Explosive. ...
  • Gas Welding 6) Newer Welding. Oxy-acetylene Electron-beam. Air-acetylene Laser. Oxy-hydrogen.
  • Resistance Welding 7) Related Process.

What is G in welding? ›

Welds with a 1 are flat position, 2 is horizontal, 3 is vertical and 4 is overhead. F stands for fillet weld, while G is a groove weld.

Is it hard to be a welder? ›

Welding is Hard:

It requires practice and experience. Understanding complex techniques and handling different materials add to the challenge.

What degree do you get from Tulsa Welding School? ›

With an Associate of Occupational Studies in Welding Technology degree, you could have career opportunities virtually anywhere across the country and globe. Associate of Occupational Studies in Welding Technology training is available at the Tulsa Campus only.

Does Tulsa Welding School take FAFSA? ›

Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)

In Oklahoma, you can use the FAFSA for TCC, OU, TU, Tulsa Tech, Tulsa Welding School and many more institutions.

Does Tulsa Welding School drug test students? ›

As stated above a urine drug test procedures may be conducted without prior notice at any time as deemed appropriate by the School's administrative personnel.

How long is welding school in Oklahoma? ›

Students must complete 225 hours and maintain passing grades in this course to receive a diploma and be tested for welder performance qualification certification (OSDL). If a student does not complete the 225 hours or maintain passing grades, they will not receive diploma.

How long are most welding schools? ›

Welding certificate programs help prepare individuals for these kinds of exams. A welding program may last just a few weeks or take up to six months to complete. A school for welding will cover welding theory and welding basics to arm students with the skills they need to start work upon completion.

How long does it take to be a fully qualified welder? ›

The Level 2 General Welder Apprenticeship will take 18 months to complete, during which time, you will become a competent welder, able to work in a variety of environments. Depending on the type of welder Apprentice jobs you are applying for, that particular employer will specify the entry requirements needed.


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